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Nitrogen is an essential element for plant growth as it is a major part of proteins needed for biological processes such as photosynthesis and respiration in plants. Nitrogen is a huge component of amino acids which are the building blocks of proteins. So, if plants don’t get a sufficient amount of protein then they will die. Nitrogens is also a huge part of nucleic acids which helps to form DNA which also makes it important for plant survival. Hence, Nitrogen plays a significant role in plant growth.Lack of nitrogen can also be harmful to a plant. This is because Nitrogen is a component of vitamins, amino acids and energy systems within the plant, which form its proteins. Thus, Nitrogen is directly responsible for increasing protein content in plants.
Lack of Nitrogen and chlorophyll means the plant will not be able to utilize sunlight as an energy source to carry on essential functions such as nutrient uptake. Nitrate is also very mobile in the soil and moves with soil water to root surfaces for plant absorption. Hence, It is very significant to use the right amount of nitrogen in plants or it can become toxic.Even though nitrogen can aid in plant growth, excessive nitrogen fertilizer can be harmful for the plant. When a nitrogen fertilizer is applied to a plant, the plant directly absorbs the fertilizer or it will convert the fertilizer into various other forms through the oxidation process. However, if excess fertilizer is used, then the nitrate will not get absorbed into the plant roots. If the nitrogen does not get absorbed by the the roots of the plant then it will be carried away by runoff or it will get drained into the soil with excess water instead of getting absorbed by the plant.
Another negative effect of too much Nitrogen fertilizer on a plant would be that it can dehydrate the plant. When too much fertilizer is used, it increases the soils mineral salt. This is because the soils mineral salt increases. When the mineral salt is increased water from the plant leaves and starts mixing with the soil. This is due to osmosis which states that water moves from low to high concentration. Hence, due the excess fertilizer used, the mineral salt in the soil increases, causing water to move out of the plant. Hence the leaves edges will appear burnt, yellow and brown due to dehydration.
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