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Obesity is a common and preventable disease of clinical and public health importance. It is often a major risk factor for the development of several non-communicable diseases, significant disability and premature death. Obesity is defined as a condition of abnormal or excessive fat accumulation in adipose tissue, to the extent that health is impaired.
Until recently the relation between obesity and coronary heart disease was viewed as indirect, ie, through covariates related to both obesity and coronary heart disease risk, including hypertension; dyslipidemia, particularly reductions in HDL cholesterol (abnormal lipid profile); and impaired glucose tolerance or non–insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Insulin resistance and accompanying hyperinsulinemia are typically associated with these comorbidities. Although most of the comorbidities relating obesity to coronary artery disease increase as BMI increases, they also relate to body fat distribution. Long-term longitudinal studies, however, indicate that obesity as such not only relates to but independently predicts coronary atherosclerosis. This relation appears to exist for both men and women with minimal increases in BMI.
Body Mass Index (BMI) is a simple index of weight-for-height that is commonly used to classify underweight, overweight and obesity in adults. The Body Mass Index (BMI) is widely used for the determination of nutritional status or body composition. It is the value obtained when the weight in kilograms is divided by the square of the height in meters. Nutritional status is determined through BMI cut-offs values as recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) however, in recent years some scientists in the Asia- Pacific region made recommendations that the criteria values be modified to fit the Asian body composition, which is claimed to be different compared to the American or European body composition. Thus the “Asian criteria” for the determination of nutritional status based on the BMI was born.
The cold pressor test is a widely used experimental technique for human pain or stress induction, involving immersion of the hand or forearm in cold water. First documented as a test of cardiovascular stress reactivity, its application in investigation of pain perception, mechanisms, and treatment is due to a gradually mounting painful sensation of mild to moderate intensity. As water temperatures used are within the range considered noxious (below 15°C), nociceptors (pain receptors) are activated and transmit aversive signal to the CNS. While nociception-transduction ion channels an involved have been identified, the exact mechanisms of cold pain are not fully elucidated.
Chronic imbalance of the autonomic nervous system is prevalent and potent risk factor for adverse cardiovascular events including mortality.Any factor that lead to inappropriate activation of the sympathetic nervous system.Any factor that lead to inappropriate activation of the sympathetic nervous system can be expected to have an adverse effect on this measures.Any factor that augments vagal tone tends to improve outcome. Factors linking obesity to increase BP and blood volume and cardiac output that is caused by increased metabolic demand. There is enough previous study to prove that sympathetic activity has been enhanced in obesity and increased vagal tone in underweight people.
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