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Online Data Privacy: Risk Analysis and Preventive Security Measures

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Thesis Statement: Big data can necessarily be supported by cloud computing as well as all its computing requirements. However, the personalization information for Big Data can often be considered private thus, rendering privacy issues.
Russom, P. (2011). Big data analytics.  TDWI the best practices report, fourth quarter, 19, 40.

Russom, the director of TDWI critically analyzed the essence of big data analytics by showing how it changed from a concerning problem to a very competitive business opportunity. He also outlines some fundamental assumptions supporting the application of advanced techniques to big data sets. Russon delivers a credible report as it provides the streaming and diversity of the data offering a logical preview of both customization and privacy issues of big data. The source is relevant to the chosen topic of big data because the report documents the background study of big data enhancing the argument about personalization and privacy issues about big data.

Labrinidis, A., & Jagadish, H. V. (2012). Challenges and opportunities with big data.  Proceedings of the VLDB Endowment, 5(12), 2032-2033.

Labrinidis and Jagadish explore the controversies as well as throwing light on certainties and uncertainties surrounding Big data. In doing so, the authors draw a broader recognition of data-driven decision making. The authors’ credibility in the provision of challenges and opportunities of Big data is evidenced in the article which comprises of the logical analysis of cloud computing offering a comprehensive platform for critiques and comparisons. Lastly, the report by Labrinidis and Jagadish offers voluminous relevance in the topic of study by proving the challenges to Big data rendering a possible underlying while arguing between the privacy and customization of data.

Snijders, C., Matzat, U., & Reips, U. D. (2012). ” Big Data”: significant gaps in knowledge in the field of internet science.  International Journal of Internet Science, 7(1), 1-5.

Snijders, Matzat, and Reips in their journal draw a close study of Big data about the internet science through online networks by pursuing a unique role of social scientists.

The authors of the International Journal of internet science provide a broad information regarding the big data analytics documenting credible statistics and facts and are sound and relevant to the study Big data. Therefore, in connection with topic os study, the journal provides the basis for the argumentation because all personalization facts are analyzed facilitating the curbing of privacy issues that come at a cost. Thus it worth pointing out that the journal is relevant to the topic of study.
Tene, O., & Polonetsky, J. (2012). Big data for all: Privacy and user control in the age of analytics.  Nw. J. Tech. & Intell. Prop., 11, XXVII. 

The academic journal by Tene and Polonetsky reviews Big data’ s privacy and user control providing assumptions and facts that do not threaten user privacy for good social initiative. The authors’ critical review provides extensive information regarding the privacy which is user control showing the credibility of their research and analysis as well. In doing so, Tene and Polonetsky guarantee a source for Big data study privacy and personalization. Considering the topic of study, the argument between privacy and personalization is completely researched by Tene and Polonetsky’s journal enhancing its relevancy in the topic of study.

Chen, H., Chiang, R. H., & Storey, V. C. (2012). Business intelligence and analytics: From significant data to the substantial impact. MIS Quarterly, 36(4).

Chen, Chiang, and Storey discussed business intelligence and analytics in the view of Big data. The book reflects the magnitude and impact of interrelated data issues that demand solutions in the business-related environment. The academic authors, in this case, describe evolution and implications of Big data in both theoretical and business perspective as well as highlighting significant development guaranteeing sincerity. Having an idea about the growth and essential development of Big data at a substantial angle is indeed relevant in arguing out the topic under study. This is because perfect information not only enhances the study document the significance as well.

Wang, Y., In Xiong, H., In Argamon, S., In Li, X.-Y., & In Li, J. Z. (2015).  Big data computing and communications: First International Conference, BigCom 2015, Taiyuan, China, August 1-3, 2015, Proceedings.

The article documents an insight that the amount of data being collected exceeds by far what can be analyzed by individuals without assistance. This is due to a continuous emerging of the social site such as Google, Yahoo, and Facebook. The privacy and personalization aspect is substantially covered and guarantees less threat. The credibility the authors are evidenced in the international conference that prompted into the study. Since the central thesis of the research revolves around the privacy and customization of big data, the source is relevant to the success of the argument in the study as it provides literature about cloud computing which is significant as far as the investigation is concerned.

Crawford, K., & Schultz, J. (2014). Big data and due process: Toward a framework to redress predictive privacy harms.  BCL Rev., 55, 93.

Crawford and Schultz address the privacy harm of big data by providing an analysis of reliable methods behind the underlying phenomena in the field of engineering, science, and business as well. The credibility of the sources in informed has gone a milestone in facilitating future studies through data mining, clustering, and predictive visualization. Therefore, in connection with the investigation, it is worth pointing out that large-scale optimization of data affords relevance in the achievement of the study objectives also supporting the argument in the research.

McAfee, A., Brynjolfsson, E., & Davenport, T. H. (2012). Big data: the management revolution.  Harvard business review, 90(10), 60-68.

The book describes managing big data concerning the issue of privacy and personalization as well as its significance in the discipline of computer science and technology. McAfee, Brynjolfsson, and Davenport, professionally argued in the management of only measurable data as the basis to privacy and customization of data without any extra cost. The relevance of such credibility is significant in the application of big data in the science internet enabling interested customers to visit their online store without the fear of privacy. With such favorable argument, data encryption assures users privacy as well as personalization.

Solutions to several demanding economic and social problems usually lie in better understanding of data. Innovative strategies and tools for analyzing different information sets should be revolutionized to improve the levels of Big Data protection signals. Big Data systems hold different potentials for innovations ranging from enhanced health care services, sterile environment as well as brighter marketing strategies. However, the advocates of data privacy are usually associated with the same advances with an upend power connections between online data risks, preventive security plus lead to prosecutorial manipulation, online data refinement, redlining, over illegalization, as well as other forms of restricted online freedoms (Russom, 2011).

Through the arrival of the internet, security levels have to turn out to be critical concerns; also the record of security legalizes an improved perceptive of the surfacing of security know-how. The web arrangement itself permitted for different safety terrorizations to happen. The structural design of the internet, once customized can lessen the probable operation attack through the network. Being aware of the assault technique, permits for the right security to come out. Various businesses protect themselves from the internet through the use of firewalls as well as encryption mechanisms.

The companies formed an intranet to stay linked to the web but protected from potential terrorization. The whole field of the net system security is immense as well as a developing phase. The sequence of research consists of a brief account courting back to the internet’s early stages and the present progression network safety. To comprehend the study being conducted currently, background knowledge of the web, its susceptibilities, attack techniques through the internet, and security technology is essential hence they have to be analyzed.

In the previous years, the diversity of risk that the computer network face by sophisticated attackers has raised radically transversely all communal margins this has led to challenging cost-effective encumbrance on health and organization schemes. This is due to excess structures of current knowledge on the computer system, quick development of internet service station, common usage and distribution of facts. Henceforth, creating risk assessment an extremely critical matter in the network of equipment.
Concerning statistics there has been a shocking tendency in the number of security leverage such as economic deception, stealing of exclusive figures, statistics or pure deceit or intelligence, scheme (McAfee, 2012). Computer programmers or rejection of facility outbreaks in many establishments in the previous years; several and big business have been significantly affected by these volatile computer net security openings. Therefore, the chief concern of whichever institute is the safety of their statistics, for them to achieve the necessities of the corporate dealing (information security) Privacy, honesty and accessibility, the value of information must be continued. Thus, the possibility of deprivation (Risk) in the workstation network of any business organization should be put into concern since the computer network creates a return of high value to companies. Computer security is the use of technology to do a job or task correctly that is, making sure that the system works correctly. Safety is the process that requires input from the entire organization to be effective.

Risk assessment means looking at each particular task and bearing in mind the safety system of completing it, this aids to be conscious of the threats convoluted in carrying out the work and taken actions to prevent injury. To evaluate risk, one first needs to identify the hazards (that is, tools, equipment’s, materials and work method); Secondly, to decide who might be harmed and how. Furthermore, assess the risk and put measures to control the risk. Also, account for the findings and apply them and finally, scrutinize the assessment and modernize it as required.

Risk Evaluation Practice; in risk assessment, the sequence of actions to achieve result includes:

  1. What valuable assets used for the network (computers, and information trade secret)
  2. What are threats to the network (scam, impersonators, and private workers); computer programmers could be internal or external destruction?
  3. What are the susceptibilities to the network (infrastructure exposure?)

Practices employed to evaluate risk

Over the previous years many techniques have been applied to conduct the risk assessment in computer network system these are; Nationwide Institution of Standard and Technology method, Operative Critical Risk, Asset and Vulnerability Assessment and benchmarking. Nationwide Institution of Standard and Technology help various establishments to develop, sustain and maintain standard processes of the knowledge required to advance the quality of products and services offered, to guarantee the use of updated actions to achieve results, to certify the dependability of the product as well as to promote a prompt growth of marketing.

The latter is the method used to determine the enactment of supercomputer network in an establishment. Benchmarking tools is a set of databases that are used to identify and evaluate its adoption, network proprieties, strategies as well as the webs under particular conditions. More so, benchmark aids to standardize and enhance the perspective and firmness at the various swiftness of hardware and software (valued resources). Also, it helps to know to the degree does a computer system can hold up under demanding circumstances and also help to know the position of specific challenges which later, helps to lessen the expenditures when mending and bringing up-to-date the network. The Network links, central processing unit function, server and various parts of the computer network that can be measured or judged.

The range of risk evaluation

In business or company establishment in which data is being produced on a day-to-day basis, the safety of statistics and information is the utmost essential primary concern that has to be put onto keen deliberation to avert any cyber-criminal activity to give and take the network. Risk evaluation transmits out the safety and information risks that might happen in an institution; it aids in planning for the unexpected situations. The risk may be influenced by either interior or exterior forces to destabilize the organization so that it will not have the capability to attain its information security objectives. To evaluate any risk, there is a necessity to discover the terrorizations that may happen and the susceptibilities to the threats (Tene, 2012).

Unintentional Human: or human occurrence

The likelihood that someone will deliberately or accidentally do something that will cause damage to the computer network is very high or that someone is going to do something underdeveloped (like shutting down the server). In this context, there is a requirement for security verification and compression (the usage of clear and personal guidelines) or password so as to have the ability to access the computer.
Malicious Human: (or persons with criminal minds)

These are people with malicious intent; it is classified into three, which are: Impersonation, Interception, and Interference. Impersonation is compared to deceiving. This occurs when one effectively cheats or disguises to have access by faking data into somebody else’s assets illegally. Interception refers to a situation when one hacks the server or mail essentially to obtain vibrant facts or data or trade secret to disrupt the business organization, intelligence trade secret or to blackmail the team. Consequently, invidious human the usage of decent verification and data encryption of statistics for definite assets are essential and also the use of locks to secure supercomputers from being taken away. Influence of convicts could be internal or external.

Points at which risk should be assessed in a computer network

Threat evaluation refers to the system that should occasionally be constant; it obliges for a continuous effort. There is indeed no wrong time to evaluate risk and scrutinize network susceptibilities. Threat evaluation is not only meant to comprehend the technology resolution to security but also to understand the professional validation for affecting the safety. The Main areas where risk requires to be evaluated are; when the different code, software packages or presentation are established, to guarantee the security state of the system as well as to know whether the examination implemented previously will be of assistance if security problem arises. Every time changes are prepared on the programs or schemes which will aid to expose susceptibilities that have possible side influence.

Risk evaluation and vulnerability should frequently be done conducted to scrutinize the control applied and anytime there is an influence on security, invasion or attack. Hence, help in perceiving how online breakages are performed and provide effective strategies to reduce the risk. As with any crime, the threat to confidentiality and reliability of data ascends from a very slight minority of criminals. A particular user operating from a primary computer can lead to the destruction of a large number of systems in an organization. Additionally, the terrorizations can also be triggered by the employees offering services in the business associations. Supreme system securities specialists have an assertion that the mainstream of network attacks are instigated by the staffs who work inside the organizations where breaks have happened.

Through faults, frequently the workers tend to destroy their own firm’s networks and debase the data. Additionally, with the aid of distant technology, companies are growing to include a large number of teleworkers, branch offices, and corporate associates. These remote organizations and associates represent identical dangers as in-house staffs and also the risk of security breaks if their distant networking belongings are not appropriately safeguarded and supervised. Consequently for a company to protect its data, it requires having detailed information concerning the prospective rivals and their activities. Network security dangers can be categorized into two classifications; these are Logic attacks and Resource attacks. The logic outbreaks pervert the software and liabilities with an aim to crash the scheme. The attacks are made deliberately by computer programmers to destroy the system enactment.

Research attacks are the set of networks security attacks. These attacks are anticipated to impact the primary constituents such as the central processing unit and Random access memory. Frequently this is done by the distribution of several internet protocol packets. The attack can be even more influential if the attacker fixes the despiteful software. Regularly, the malicious software encompasses the code for tracking many attack occurrences and a communication groundwork to empower distant regulatory (Crawford, 2014).

After detecting the causes of threats and the types of damage that can arise about, it becomes easy to frame a security strategy. Currently, various administrations have an extensive variety of choices for technologies starting from antivirus software correspondences to steadfast network security hardware such as security system technologies must be used to project the security schemes in an organization to protect the business undertakings at all level. After fitting the safety implements, skilled network security professionals can be involved to have a guarantee that current policy is responsible for the necessary way out for safety practices. Also, the exercises can also be included in the progression of ascertaining the restrictions of the current security and also to modernize it from frequently. Commonly, the certification approaches rely on additional aspect than a lone one. Such multi-influence practices are hard to plan. These methods are more dependable as well as stronger than fraud preventions. Extenuating perils might lead into go a long way towards enhancing security. The practices to safeguard the computer system and reduce the likelihood of threat or susceptibility effect in an organization include:

1. Use of Firewalls

Groups set up firewalls to curb a computer system from illegal packets in and out of the local network. The security system could be hardware as external devices positioned between the local area network and the router connected to the internet or as software fitted on each computer; security system usually scrutinizes all the incoming data. It safeguards the internal computer network against venomous access from outside and can also be designed to restrict the right of entry of core users to the rest of the world. It is fitted with each connection to the internet exposing data flow to careful supervision and also set up to conform to the security guidelines that majorly give the operator the ability control the flow of data in and out of the network. This security system offers safety measures that make the computer network less susceptible and lessen the risks.

2. Antivirus software

Antivirus software is designed to safeguard and secure the computer against despiteful threat or viruses such as Keyloggers and other codes that can do away with the system which can be started by the users though surfing the web or use of memory sticks across the network. The risk can slow down the computer and also lead to a strange and unwanted conduct of the network. There is a necessity for a fast antivirus scanner to become aware of a malicious threat to the system and clean the system from these threats aiding the operator in having a clean a malware system. Antivirus program software has to run in the background ultimately times and be updated once it expires to uphold the reliability of the network.

Group policy

The policy permits or runs central switch of workers and computers in an organization. It gets responsible for control over the program and eliminates the program when it is not needed. It forms a modified desktop alignment for the employees. It provides a registered on to the computer system using an account that contains proprietor license for the policy usage.

To conclude online risk evaluation does not have an assurance for complete eradication or stoppage of all malicious threats but lessens threats to a reduced degree. Therefore, adequate planning must be done to direct the staffs on the strategy of various organizations and response to the definite interior and exterior impacts since the central computer threat is essentially the operator behind the computer. Exercise safe internet practices and use current virus protection and analyses the evaluation occasionally.

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Online Data Privacy: Risk Analysis and Preventive Security Measures. (2018, October 02). GradesFixer. Retrieved September 22, 2022, from
“Online Data Privacy: Risk Analysis and Preventive Security Measures.” GradesFixer, 02 Oct. 2018,
Online Data Privacy: Risk Analysis and Preventive Security Measures. [online]. Available at: <> [Accessed 22 Sept. 2022].
Online Data Privacy: Risk Analysis and Preventive Security Measures [Internet]. GradesFixer. 2018 Oct 02 [cited 2022 Sept 22]. Available from:
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