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Organizational Citizenship Behavior

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In an organization, certain behaviors are anticipated from an employee that is dependent on the organization’s rules and regulations. However, employees tend to do things that are beyond their responsibilities and exhibit these behaviors out of their own desire. This is what we call Organizational Citizenship Behavior. This behavior includes acts like helping others, adding responsibilities, taking extra hours, tackling relevant issues of organization which are not part of the employee’s job description. Rather, it is my personal choice wherein if the individual will not show such behavior, he or she will not be punished (Organ, Podsakoff, and MacKenzie, 2005). The Organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) was first shown in the work of Bateman and Organ in1983 and is still of great interest to many researchers nowadays, as, since it was introduced, studies have been published for more than 650 (Dekas, Bauer, Welle, Kurkoski, & Sullivan, 2013). The reason for this interest is that OCB is connected with considerable outcomes of an organization and certain individual (Podsakoff, Whiting, Podsakoff & Blume, 2009). There are five key dimensions of OCB as identified by Denis w. Organ in1988.

First is altruism, a selfless act by an individual for the welfare of others even if it results in the disadvantage of one’s self. Next is courtesy wherein employees show politeness to avoid conflict with co-workers. Civic virtue is a voluntary behavior of employees who actively engaged themselves and deeply embrace the policies of an organization.

Another dimension is conscientiousness in which an employee shows awareness and is conscious of the organization’s rules and regulations as well as on their own actions. Last is sportsmanship which describes an employee’s behavior of not wanting to waste time complaining about difficulties at work that are unnecessary. A study conducted from 173 bank employees in Kenya shows that employee’s performance progressively encompasses the concept of OCB and results also indicates that the five dimensions mentioned have a significant and positive effect on the performance of an individual in an organization. The study suggests that altruism enables employees to share their expertise with others and employees showing courtesy are likely to engage in citizenship behavior (Chelagat, Chepkwony & Kemboi, 2015).

Also, an integrative literature review examines OCB in relation to an organization’s performance and have found out that it aids in the improvement of a team. Moreover, it contributes to employee’s performance through recognition of the managers of the employee’s helpfulness and cooperation (Rose, 2016). A research conducted by Babcock-Roberson and Strickland in 2010, through gathering different empirical data, links charismatic leadership, work engagement and organizational citizenship behavior. Results indicate that charismatic leadership to employees increases work engagement and once employees are engaged in their work, the incidence of their behavior, specifically OCB, occurs more often. In connection, using 296 hotel staff members, empirical data were gathered indicating that burnout and decrease emotional accomplishment is negatively related to organizational citizenship behavior. Job involvement by employees mediates burnout and OCB (Chiu & Tsai, 2006). OCB has no known negative effect in an organization rather it helps increase an organization’s productivity and an individual’s performance.

Though employees exhibiting OCB do not expect anything in return, managers should acknowledge or give feedback to those who are doing extra-role behavior which will help motivate them and improve their performance. On the other hand, some employees must not depend much on their co-workers who are engaged in OCB since they might end up being lax in their work. Furthermore, since charismatic leadership correlates with improvement of employee’s performance through engagement of work (Bono & Judge, 2003) and that work engagement positively affects OCB, it would be beneficial for managers and researchers to look for more evidence that helps support that leadership improves employee’s performance through organizational citizenship behavior. This will give the organization more insight into the management of employee’s performance through improving leadership qualities.

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