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Australia is enclosed by the Indian and pacific oceans. Australia is the largest country in Oceania and the world’s 6th largest county by the total area. Australia is highly urbanized and heavily concentrated on the eastern seaboard. The population of 25 million of the country. Sydney is a largest city of Australia. The country originate income from various sources, such as mining-related export, telecommunication, manufacturing and banking. Australia is a highly developed country with the world’s 13th huge economy.
Australia has one of the most different and most beauteous environment in the world. Currently there are fourteen world heritage listed sites in Australia. Central Australia has a more dry climate and Northern Australia has some tropical cyclones. Agriculture and mining are the main land uses in Australia.
We can see the different environmental issues faced by the Australia. Most of human activities cause to that issues, like human land use activities and the economic activities. Those environmental issues are, climate change, conservation, land degradation, global warming, water use, urbanization, salinity and water issues, bushfires, overfishing and illegal fishing and etc.
Climate change happen naturally or result of human activities. We can identify Australia has most risk from the climate change. Ecosystem of Australia is one reason for the climate change. increase in Australia’s temperatures and increasing frequently of bushfires, droughts and floods are most highlighted divers key points of climate in country. These all have been combined to climate change. southeastern areas water sources of Australia have decrease because of increasing population in urban areas coupled with climate change instrumental such as persistent prolonged drought. Rainfall type are expected to be problematic, as rain has become heavier and infrequent, as well as more common in summer rather than winter.
Australia is one of the most biologically divers country in the world. Preservation of biodiversity is main conservation problem in Australia, specially by protecting the remaining rainforests. The destroy of habited by people activities, including land clearing, remain the main causes of biodiversity loss in Australia. Forestry, fisheries and agriculture sectors are mainly contributed to biodiversity loss in country, because intensification of resources use in these sectors. Most of humans are living in coastal and marine areas. These human settlement and agriculture activities cause to decrease the water quality. Therefore, coastal and marine environment have decrease biodiversity in Australia.
Australia is mostly land use for the Agriculture sector. Land degradation is the Australia’s number one environmental problem. Land degradation harm to the habitat for wildlife and quality of inland waters. Natural acidity and salinity cause to the land degradation. There are most of factors affect for the land degradation such as, water erosion, clearance of native vegetation, soil erosion, some man-made draughts, wind erosion, soil salinity and etc. Australia is continuing in parts of clearcutting in old growth forests. This oft-time involves the replacement with monoculture plantations and destruction of natural ecosystems.
Land clearing for agriculture sector has resulted in the significant loss of native woodlands and forest in Australia. Most of the land clearing has come about since 1980. Land clearance destruction the ecosystems, threatens, biodiversity and can cause the soil degradation leading to salinity and loss of water quality.
Water and salinity degradation are closely concern with land clearance. Former to European settlement and land clearing, trees and vegetation soaked up the rainfall retaining the salt at a manageable level. Overtime, with the loss of vegetation, the scale of water draining into the ground water enhances and this can the mobilize salts stored in the soil. Salinity mostly affect to the loss of productivity and income, agricultural crops, birds, fish and other wildlife relying on rivers and wetlands that are vital water supplies. It can affect to urban areas such as, damaging housing, water pipes, infrastructure, roads and railways.
Australia is one of the most urbanized country in the world. Majority of Australian cities are characterized by an unsustainable law density urban sprawl and have large urban footprints. This place demand on services and infrastructure which contributes to the problems of transport related emissions, land clearing, pollution, energy consumption, automobile dependency, invasive species and urban heat islands. The urbanization sprawl continues to increase at a speedy rate in most Australian cities. Specially the state capital cities are metropolis. Increase the population growth rate in most Australian cities, because migration in contrast to the birth rate and fertility rate in Australia.
Global warming is caused by greenhouse gas emission. Global warming more negatively impact for the economy, environment and communities. Specially the agriculture sector significantly impacted from global warming. It is mostly affect for the ecosystem from temperature rises, increase threats of fire, pest invasions, droughts, salt invasion etc. Global warming effect change to rainfall patterns, increasing droughts, more flooding, also it mostly affects for the farmers like reduce food available. Global warming affect to human healths, increase heat waves and it may lead to deaths and illness.
Bushfires are frequent issues during the warmer month of the year, because Australia’s most hot, dry climate, these fires impact extensive areas. Also, it can cause to property damage and loss of human life. Some of the most intense, extensive and deadly these fires commonly arise during heat waves and drought.
Australia has many intranational environmental policies such as:
Government of Australia introduces a science based approach to their conservation work and are committed to real, measurable outcomes for the environment which directly benefit Australia species and natural resources like water, land the marine environment. They established the Australian greenhouse office as a solution for climate change, it was the world’s first government agency dedicated to cutting greenhouse gas emission. As a solution for bushfires local authorities provide education and information for residents in bushfire prone areas regarding the position of current fires.
Paris agreement – this agreement include a review of emission reduction target every five years from 2020.
Environment protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act (EPBC) – this act helps to protect Australia’s significant environment such as, world heritage areas, commonwealth marine environment, threatened species communities and wetlands and national importance. This act introduced a national protection scheme for wildlife. Also, this act promotes sustainable development through the conservation and sustainable use of natural resources.
Environment protection Act – this act preserves the environment by regulating against putting pollution in to the air, water or land. Also, this act controls how garbage is collected, stored, transported and treated.
Households and individuals are contributing to reducing greenhouse gas emission. Also, implemented of government policies and programmes to support reduce the greenhouse gas emission. These actions are, citizen science activities such as monitoring the condition of the great Barrier Reef, installing solar panels on roof tops, buying fuel efficient cars and appliances and supporting companies that have cut greenhouse gas emission.
Numerous government policies and programmes are contributing farmers to reduce greenhouse gas emission and adapt to changing the climate, while considering huge environmental values. Emission reduction projects in land and agriculture sector increase the productivity and provide environmental benefits like positive Biodiversity outcomes.
As solutions for global warming in Australia include aggressively decreasing coal dependence while simultaneously implementing a price on carbon emission and a national renewable electricity standard.
Australia has one of the most different and beautiful environment in the world. Australia is highly urbanized country. The various environmental problem faced by the Australia. Most of human land use and economic activities cause to that issues. Climate change, conservation, land degradation, land clearance, salinity and water issues, global warming, urbanization, bushfires are some of the environmental issues in Australia. These all environmental issues combined with each other. One issue is affect for arise another issue. Country has many important intranational policies, act, agreement to solve these issues. They give more attention to reduce climate change related problem and greenhouse gas emission. They considering the protect environmental values. As my suggestion to solve these problems, reduce the urbanization, eliminate the human settlement in coastal and marine areas, recycle of wastage etc.
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