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The Ho Chi Min city also known as Saigon is metropolitan area in Vietnam. The city was brought upon because of its unique history and pivotal role that it played in the Vietnam war. Ho Chi Minh was a political leader who formed the League for Independence of Vietnam. Ho Chi Minh helped take over part of the north and declared that part of it should be a Democratic Republic. Ho Chi Minh became the President. Emperor Bao, the current leader of Vietnam at the time, was not happy with this decision and this caused both sides ot want Vietnam to be united. In retaliation, Ho Chi Minh wanted a communist Vietnam while Bao did not agree with this. Eventually, one of the most historic wars broke out and chaos struck in Vietnam. This was known as the Vietnam war which covered 796 miles of land. Now, Ho Chi Minh is a slum located in Vietnam named after the former political leader. Vietnam is one of the largest countries and ranks 15th for population (World Meters, 2019). Like many other slums, Ho Chi Minh came as a result of war in the country. During the Vietnam war, people fled to Ho Chi Minh to escape the dangers of being outside a city. The city ended up playing a huge role in the war and provided sanctuary to a lot of people. In cities, people could rely on residing there because it provided water and food to eat, in which outside of cities, this was not always the case. Currently, there is an estimated 8.44 million people living in the city of Ho Chi Minh (World Population Review, 2019). This informal settlement was very random to Vietnam because it wasn’t until after the war that individuals started pouring into the city. Ho Chi Minh houses and provides shelter for so many individuals. As of 2019, Ho Chi Minh is one of the most populated in the world.
Ho Chi Minh is the financial centere of Vietnam. It is classified as the Beta world city and it is home to the Ho Chi Minh City stock exchange which is the largest exchange in the total market capitalization for Vietnam. Ho Chi Minh is also one of many national and international companies. Ho Chi Minh has gone by several different names because of its history based on its reflected settlement and different ethnic, cultural and political groups. The earliest settlement in Ho Chi Minh was a Funan temple at the location of the current Phung Son Pagoda. (History.org, 2015) Ho Chi Minh City is based in the south eastern region of Vietnam and reaches about 1090 miles south of Hanoi. Ho Chi Minh is one of Vietnam’s largest province is and it is subdivided into 24 district level subdivisions. It consists of five rule districts; 19 urban districts ho Chi Minh is one of Vietnam ‘s largest province is, and it is subdivided into 24 district level subdivisions. It consists of five rural districts and 19 urban districts. The city’s population in 2004 was 6.1 million people and it is expected to grow to a population of 13.9 million by the year of 2025. The population of the city expanded faster than everybody had predicted and that included about 8 to 10,000,000 drastic underestimations. The majority of the population in Ho Chi Minh are ethnic Vietnamese at about 94%. Ho Chi Minh City is the largest minority ethnic group are Chinese who only reside at about 5% in the city.
Ho Chi Minh was first entered by the Vietnamese in the 17th century. Their relations with France began in the 18th century where they traded with the French and that caused them to settle in the area. Approximately in the mid 1800s, the town was then captured by the French. Following that, it was ceded to France given permission from the emperor off the time, Tu Duc. Ho Chi Minh was transformed into a major port city and a metropolitan area. Though Ho Chi Minh was no affected by World War II, in 1945 the Japanese surrendered, and Vietnamese independence was declared under Ho Chi Minh in Hanoi. Celebrations arose and turned into rioting where French troops came to seize control of the city. The war ended in 1954 and it cause Vietnam to divide into two zones— southern and northern.
Under the communist control Ho Chi Minh lost its administrating functions and many efforts were put in place to reduce population and dependence on foreign imports. While many businesses had to shut down during the 1970s, new business ideas and ventures too place which emphasized the self-sufficiency of the city its history definitely left its mark as Ho Chi Minh retains its faded look and its many western styled building all still stemming from the time of the French. Most of the fun aspects in the city including bars, restaurants, clothing stores and parks have closed their doors due to the outcome of the Vietnam War. Ho Chi Minh was a fairly large city before the Vietnam War, but following the brawl, the city grew into an overpopulated area that not only strived to provide shelter but provide jobs that allow opportunities for social and economic advancement. Ho Chi Minh did not spare any needs when it comes to providing for the citizens that reside there. Soon, this epidemic ended abruptly. In Ho Chi Minh, the city became so crowded that people were forced to sleep on the streets to find space for them and their families. The city has been around for many years, but the Vietnam War was a large contributor to making it into the slum it is today. Ho Chi Minh slums are one of the most poor and populated cities in Vietnam. Ho Chi Minh has had so many people die and disasters destroy its land. Ho Chi Minh was once called the pearl of the far east during the French colonial period. In the middle of district one there are slums where the houses are so small that a family has barely enough room to eat a meal together. The slums in Ho Chi Minh have made it extremely difficult for families to come together and to live a regular lifestyle. Beds are a luxury item in the slums of Ho Chi Minh and it has been extremely devastating to the residence that have to live there. earlier this year the city authorities of Ho Chi Minh use the department of natural resources to review the laws of safety and to work with the authorities in District one so that they could re-settle and change the environment for the people that live there. The city is one of the most populated cities today with almost eight and half million-people residing on the land. People living in Ho Chi Minh today describe the city as “calming” and “relaxed” (Bbc.com, 2017). The jobs are very similar to jobs that people in cities in America work. There are many businesses stationed in Ho Chi Minh which provide employment for the people living there. People work at local shops, in businesses, in schools, or for restaurants. The job market is very well off in Vietnam and they have a very low unemployment rate for their citizens. Since the city is so large and so populated, finding a job is not too difficult.
Ho Chi Minh is one of Vietnam southern cities that is prone to many natural disasters. To start off tropical cyclones have been the peak occurrence of typhoon and falls in Vietnam and normally comes during the month of October in the southern and central region. Vietnam is had roughly around 786 typhoons and tropical storms that affected Vietnam during the 20th century. Of those 786 typhoons 348 have had speeds greater than 120 km/h. The storms typically hit the mainland especially the coastal provinces and this causes for the C level pressure to rise. The data of Vietnam shows more than 200 tracks of tropical storms which developed in the east see an approach to Vietnam coast in the past 60 years. (Prevention Web, 2014)
Because of Vietnam is coastline which measures about 3260 km it is one of the most vulnerable countries against these coastal disasters especially storms that cause tropical cyclones. The storms increase in the level of seawater which is caused by High Winds and it pushes the ocean surface combined with the effect of low pressure to the center of the weather system in Vietnam. Although the research is slim to none Vietnam has had a series of studies. Starting from 1992 until 2003 researchers and the United Nations development program have performed projects and experiments to evaluate the storm surge risk due to the tropical storms that come to the southern part of Vietnam.
In Vietnam there is A sad lack of understanding on the extreme effects of tsunamis on the Vietnamese coast due to the limited record about other tsunami events of Vietnam. In 2011, the program coordination group on natural disasters and emergencies noted that” … part of the Vietnamese coast capital he be affected by a tsunami though the probability of a tsunami of it is relatively low.” (PCGNDE, 2011) it is feared that the coastal erosion will be significantly destroyed due to the future climate changes and the effects that it has on Vietnam. Even under the current climate it is still extremely possible to find all of the areas in Vietnam including Ho Chi Minh that suffer from this severe problem. Rapidly growing coastal cities like Ho Chi Minh have been pulling in population from neighboring areas because of their advantages and their ability to improve in technology.
Vietnam overall is associated with six natural hazards that will affect Ho Chi Minh drastically. Tropical cyclones, tsunamis, storm surges, coastal erosion, topographical hazard, and sea level rise all create vulnerability of the local communities in Ho Chi Minh because there are threats to their living arrangements and environment. The president study of the country still insist that Ho Chi Minh will be in for natural disasters. Because of Ho Chi Minh’s history, it is likely that these natural disasters will affect the people and the city.
The disaster management in Ho Chi Minh and Vietnam as a whole has taken a great turn. Over the last 30 years Vietnam has made an extremely good improvement on their economy and infrastructure. In the late 1900s Vietnam created and launched a new economic reform policy collectively known as Doi Moi. Extreme changes came into play and it increased economic growth which then developed and transformed Vietnam from an extremely poor nation into a lower middle-class country. The current status of the government in Vietnam is currently working on improving the structure in the region although it is still somewhat poor. Communications utilities and road problems hinder foreign investment, and this causes the business in the country to be nonexistent. As part of their goal to be and improved country the government sends almost 10 to 15% of the country‘s GDP directly into infrastructure development. (Disaster Management Reference Handbook December 2018)
Vietnam is extremely vulnerable to multiple natural hazards and disasters such as floods earthquakes drought tsunami’s and even cyclones. However even though the most disasters are floods and droughts Vietnam is the most affected region of the country during this season of blood. Usually ranging from October to November. Most of the population in Vietnam lives on the coast line and this is where the low-lying river increases and floods making the people that reside there are vulnerable for shelter and dry weather.
The Vietnamese government and the people of Ho Chi Minh are working to improve the disaster risk reduction and make it one of its top priorities. The government has created numbers of important legal documents ideas strategies and smart plans to lower the risk of disaster is taking over the country. Being a member of the ASEAN Vietnam has the support of different neighboring nations to help with recovery and reduce the risk of disasters killing off the population. In addition Vietnam has also made it one of their top priorities to minimize the loss of life properties, the damages of their natural resources and heritage is that follow their culture. : The system for natural disaster prevention and control in the Vietnam area is based on an intersect world corporation that is reflected in the full representation of sectors and ministries under the direction and leadership of the minister of agriculture and rural development also known as MARD.
To help deal with some of the issues in the city of Ho Chi Minh, the government proposed a plan to move some of the shacks along the canals. The plan was to relocate these households and provide better housing for them. They are currently being moved to condo projects in hopes of creating better living environments for these families. These shacks are run-down, weak, and an eyesore to many people. The goal is to remove these homes from along the canals to clean up the city and control the population. Currently, the city is realizing that this is costing more money than anticipated. The city has had to put a pause on the relocations due to not having enough money to complete the project. The city is working on finding investors who would be willing to help the city finish their plan and remove the remaining homes from along the canals. The plan was announced in 2016 but has not been completed yet due to funding. So far, the community has not been too happy with the government’s plan. The plan is to turn Ho Chi Minh into a smart city by the year 2020. Current residents are nervous about how successful this plan will be and how much of it will actually become a reality. They also fear that the city will not have the funding needed to transform Ho Chi Minh from a slum to a smart city with good opportunities, advanced economic culture, and a safe environment. (e.vnexpress.net, 2018)
Though the project is still in process says it has helped improve the disaster planning an early warning for the southern section of Vietnam. The hydrometer Ology authority has improved the planning capacity for the integrated disaster risk management at both the national and local levels in Vietnam as well as Ho Chi Minh City. Investment support has been provided to improve safety of disaster provision in Ho Chi Minh and its infrastructure.
In regard to disaster response Vietnam has created a disaster management policy and technology center also known as the DMPCT that was established under the Vietnam disaster management authority. It established after the merger of the disaster management center in August 2017. This center is very advanced and has five divisions including organization administration, planning and finance division, technology application, database management, division policy, training division as well as disaster management.
Vietnam has made a tremendous amount of progress on their millennium development goals and sanitation during disasters. The country has reached 98% of the population with water sources and sanitation systems. Ho Chi Minh as a city on its own has made progress as well and has shown in the healthcare field in Vietnam. Life expectancy in Ho Chi Minh has increased and infant mortality has decreased at an alarming rate. Ho Chi Minh‘s plan has shown dramatic change in the city where it makes Vietnam stronger as a country and instills safety and encouragement to its residents.
The national strategy for Vietnam is ultimately to end natural disaster destruction. As of 2020 the main goal is to mobilize all resources to effectively create a disaster prevention and minimize the losses of human life. In 2020 Ho Chi Minh hopes to enhance the capacities of forecasting storms drought floods earthquakes and tsunamis in order to correctly inform the people that live there. The development planning in the building codes of the socio-economic structures and areas in Ho Chi Minh have been affected by disasters. In addition, Ho Chi Minh Vietnam wants to ensure that 100% of the local staff that directly work to prevent disasters are trained and strengthened to make sure that 70% of the population that has to live in the disaster-prone areas are clear on the disaster that is going to take place. Even though Ho Chi Minh has had a great improvement in their disaster management they share their successes with the north side of Vietnam as well. They want to improve the food and flood resistance of the embankment on the coastal central regions. Ho Chi Minh plans to ensure safety for reservoirs especially the large ones and the important structures of the national security and defense downstream. (Prevention Web, 2019) The governments of disaster management in Vietnam has skyrocketed and made all of the residents feel much better about coming to the country and being able to reside there without having to worry about natural disasters taking their family away or ruining their homes. As of today, Ho Chi Minh has made a lot of improvements when it comes to the safety and status of the city. Ho Chi Minh is one of Vietnam’s only cities to gain control and put strategies into effect to overall benefit the city. Even 40 years later after the war Vietnam is still deeply divided. Ho Chi Minh has brought together many people and even the natural disasters cannot bring the country down. Overall Ho Chi Minh has done numbers when it comes to the amount of time it took them to recover from the war and the natural disasters that occurred after.
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