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Followed by the Media Dynamics publication, an adult will expose to nearly 600-625 of advertisement from different source in one day .(Media Matters, 2007)Thus, the number of advertisement that people were noticed is just 76 according to the study by Bauer and Greyser. (Bauer/Greyser; 1964 ) In the advertisement industry , it is very important to take root on the basis of persuasion. Based on the thesis Rhetoric by Aristotle , a Greek philosopher , persuasion rely on three modes of proof which are ethos, pathos and logos. Artistic proof is still the fundamental mode or argument; for inartistic proof do not speak for themselves, therefore combined proof to create a persuasive argument. Consequently ,this assignment is a rhetorical analysis of two advertisement to discuss how the persuader utilize these mode to persuade their audience.
This is an advertisement by the Lipton Pakistan-The Citizens Foundation partnership to provide free education for 10 TCF schools. A child, “Chotu” is working in a local stall as child labor and is unable to go to school like other children of his age, then a man appear at the stall and helps Chotu to attend school. The advertisement wants the audience to acknowledge the fact that many children are exploited as child labour. The Lipton advertisement is try to convince audiences that are emotional, sentimental, sensibility or perceptual. These type of audience is easily convince by using pathos that bring their emotion into the advertisement.
The second advertisement is published by Turkish Airline. This advertisement can be seen as a game , the game consisting three competitors and one referee. With the full objective is they to get the referee on their own side. In this case, the referee is a 10-12 years old looking child, he chooses what he wants whether it’s getting an autograph from Lionel Messi, an autograph from Kobe Bryant or the ice cream from the flight attendant where he represents Turkish Airways as a whole. At last, he chooses the ice cream from the flight attendant without thinking once. The primary goal in this advertisement is try to convince the audience which in this case is anyone who fly to fly with Turkish Airlines and consider them the best of the best. On the other hand, Turkish Airline advertisement is try to convince those realism which believe something due to their credibility and reliability. So when the advertisement is portrayed the public figure or professional that had qualifications, those audience will believe it effectively.
Ethos is the appeal to ethics and credibility of the persuader, which is the first element in the theory of persuasion, and it refers to the character of the speakers or persuaders. Apart from the character, non-verbal messages are included such as physical appearances, reputation and the way messages are delivered (Demidorgen, 2010, p.192).
In the end of the first advertisement, it shows the number of Unilever company, which want the Pakistani to get a missed call, and give free education to the children. From this point, Unilever is credible to Pakistanis because it tries to influence the Pakistan government policies and raise awareness about national issues and find solutions hastily, and has been successful on many occasions, as stated by Shazia Syed, Chairperson and CEO of Unilever Pakistan (Baig, 2017). In the end of ad, it shows the number of Unilever company, which want the Pakistani to get a missed call, and give free education to the children.
In the Turkish Airline advertisement, the use of ethos which consist of convincing the audiences by invite the world famous athletes which are Kobe Bryant and Lionel Messi. In another words, the target audience believe in this product and Turkish Airlines just because Kobe Bryant and Lionel Messi are in this commercial . Both of them have credibility to convince the audience because they are renowned athlete.
Aristotle’s proposition to pathos is the psychological appeals, which relies on the receiver’s emotional. Besides, the tone or the mood of the speech is also one of the appealed to the will of the audiences (Demidorgen, 2010, p.192).
To persuade the audience, the advertisement starts with Chotu envying the other children going to school while he is stuck washing dishes and serving tea. On the other hand, the kid, Chotu in the advertisement is a representation for all the other “Chotu” that needs to work to supplement their respective families. In Pakistan, a vast majority of child labours believe that their work is essential to aid their family (Haider and Qureshi, 2016, p.5). Pathos also supported by the background sound,which the scene turns to a young man getting inspired by the lyrics go “Will someone rise for me, will someone come forward to help” which he gets motivated and goes forward to help the child. As more children are forced to work because of the increasing poverty, the audience will show sympathy for child labours as they will agree to get a technical education only if it is free of charge (Haider and Qureshi, 2016, p.7).
However, there is no pathos appealed in the Turkish Airlines advertisement. Because this advertisement is to persuade the audience the service of the airlines is best of the best . They don’t have to use emotional appeals to attract audience .
Logos is defined by the ability to reason or to enable the audience to process the information in a logical way that is guided indirectly by the persuaders, such as providing syllogistic arguments to earn the trust of the audience.
From the Lipton advertisement, Chotu said that the local stall is his school, the dishes are books and also the ladle he uses to stir tea is his pen. From this statement, viewers can tell that Chotu wishes to go to school like the others from his age group. If he is able to attend school, he would not be having such imaginations. Then, they should know that he desires to go to school instead of working at the local stall, which could be due to either financial struggles of the family or being the child of the stall owner, and he is expected to continue the family business, hence he becomes a child labour (Haider and Qureshi, 2016, p.3).
The use of logos that used in the second advertisement is the used between the characters in the film which are Kobe Bryant and Lionel Messi. By knowing that they don’t want to lose and they are going to compete till they win. That’s a logical thing that to not quit at any time.It portrayed the real competitive situation between the companies by using another funny shot method . Another logos in the advertisement is the hidden position of Kobe Bryant and Lionel Messi which present “black” and “white” , to bring out the competitiveness among the American and African-American society logically .
For inartistic proof in the first advertisement, show that more than 40% children in Pakistan do not access to education. According to Child Rights Movement National Secretariat 2016, statistics have proven that over 12.5 million of kids in Pakistan are involved in child labour The other fact in this advertisement is about the campaign “Be awake to what really matter” from Lipton and The Citizens Foundation which is aiming to wipe out child labour from the current society, especially in Pakistan and turn around their lives.
The first advertisement is mainly use the pathos which bring the audience to have emotion response with the setting of the child that not able to go to school due to their family financial problem . The Lipton advertisement wants to raise awareness of this social issues and to encourage the public to help those children in Pakistan that are not able to go school. Thus, they use pathos to create the sad atmosphere to let audience feel empathy about those children.. The second advertisement is focus on ethos which invite public figures to convince the audience . As in the advertisement, Turkish Airline has invited two world famous athletes with high expenses to let their target audience believe and add trustworthiness in their company and services . They use celebrities ethos because people that admire them will be more willing to consume . The two advertisement that stated above use different mode of persuasion to convince different target audience, which depends on the ways they communicate. According to Dainton (2011, p.2), “good” communication means that different things to different people in a different situation.
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