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Physical and Chemical Changes Depicted in Ideal Gas Laws

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Words: 1665 |

Pages: 4|

9 min read

Published: Aug 31, 2023

Words: 1665|Pages: 4|9 min read

Published: Aug 31, 2023

Table of contents

  1. Introduction
  2. Exploring Charles’ Law
  3. Defining Boyle's Law
  4. Gas Volume in Avogadro's Law
  5. Understanding Physical and Chemical Changes
  6. Conclusion
  7. Works Cited

Introduction

The perfect gas law, also known as the general gas condition, is the condition of a hypothetical perfect gas. It is a reasonable judgment of the conduct in favor of numerous gases under numerous conditions, despite the fact that it has a few confinements. It is known that there are three Ideal Gas Laws, which are; Charles' Law, Boyle's Law, and Avogadro's Law; in which all will later combine into the General Gas. While reading Chapter 9 Introduction to Chemistry, it talks about physical changes. Chapter 9 not only talks about physical and chemical changes, the state of matter, and last but not least the kinetic Molecular Theory.

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Exploring Charles’ Law

The Charles’ Law of Ideal gases is named after Jacques Charles. Jacques Charles was the one who formulated the original law. An ideal gas may be defined as a theoretical gas composed of molecules on which no forces act, except upon collision with one another. The walls of the container is in which the gases are enclosed. It is a gas which perfectly follows Boyle’s Law. Jacques Charles the French physicist (1746-1823) studied the effect of temperature on the volume of a gas at constant pressure. The Charles Law Is an experimental gas law that describes how gases tend to expand when heated (it is also known as the law of volumes). When the pressure on a sample of a dry gas is held constant, the Kelvin temperature and the volume will be in direct proportion. This law applies to ideal gases held at a constant pressure, where only the volume and temperature are allowed to change. So we could say that Charles' Law describes how hot air balloons get light enough to lift off, and why a temperature inversion prevents convection currents in the atmosphere, and how a sample of gas can work as an absolute thermometer. The formula for Charles Law is V/T = k, where V is the volume of gas, T is the temperature of gas (measured in kelvins) and k is a constant. According to this formula, at a fixed pressure, the volume of a gas is proportional to the temperature of the gas. As the temperature increases, the volume of the gas also increases. There are quite a few fun facts Charles Law that people may find interesting like: Air conditioners and Fans function using Charles’ Law. Hot air rises and cold air comes down. Fans function on revolving the air, where as air conditioners also give off a blast of cold air from compressed coolant Breads and cakes also use Charles’ Law of Ideal Gases. Carbon dioxide trapped in fermented dough, expands on baking and causes fluffy breads and cakes. If you keep aerosol and deodorant spray cans in sunlight, they can burst. Compressed gases will expand when the temperature inside the cans increases. Steam engines and car combustion engines also work on the principle that gases expand as temperatures increase. Charles Law is used to apply mechanical movements in these engines.

Defining Boyle's Law

The second Ideal gas law is Boyle’s Law. Robert Boyle was one of the most influential chemists of the 17th century. Boyle law second guessed the sponginess of gases in 1660. The gas law is sometimes called Mariotte's law or the Boyle-Mariotte law because French physicist Edme Mariotte independently discovered the same law in 1679.This was one of the things I wasn't aware of pertaining to Boyle’s Law. There is more than one way of expressing the law as an equation. The most simplest equation is: PV = k,where P is pressure, V is volume, and k is a constant.

Boyle discovered that air has weight and exerts pressure which led him to believe that it is made up of minute particles. In volume two of this work he published Boyle's Law, stating that the volume of a gas varies inversely to the pressure of the gas. In his investigations he watched 'At a fixed temperature, the volume of a gas is conversely relative to the weight applied by the gas.' A chamber with a cylinder and a gas is submerged in a shower (for example water). The reason for the shower is to have a prepared warmth source to keep up the temperature of the gas consistent all through the analysis. A mass is put over the cylinder which brings about a weight on the gas. The gas volume is estimated and 1/V versus P information point plotted. The mass is expanded and the new 1/V versus P information point plotted. This is proceeded more than a few bigger masses. to perceive what happens place the mouse cursor over the picture. According to Boyle’s Law, an inverse relationship exists between pressure and volume. Boyle's law may be easier explained to some with the human body. For example, if we apply how people breathe and exhale air. When the diaphragm expands and contracts, lung volume increases and decreases, changing the air pressure inside of them. The pressure difference between the interior of the lungs and the external air produces either inhalation or exhalation.

Gas Volume in Avogadro's Law

Avogadro's Law is the third Ideal gas law. Amedeo Avogadro is best known for his hypothesis that equal volumes of different gases contain an equal number of molecules, provided they are at the same temperature and pressure. His hypothesis was rejected by other scientists. It only gained acceptance after his death. Eventually proven correct, this hypothesis became known as Avogadro’s law, a fundamental law of gases. Avogadro reasoned that simple gases were not formed of solitary atoms but were instead compound molecules of two or more atoms. (Avogadro did not actually use the word atom; at the time the words atom and molecule were used almost interchangeably. His law investigates the relationship between the amount of gas (n) and volume (v). It's a direct relationship, meaning the volume of a gas is directly proportional to the number of moles of the gas sample present. The constants in this relationship would be the temperature(t) and pressure(p) The equation for this law is: n1/v1 = n2/v2. The law is important because helps us save time and money in the long-run. Methanol is a versatile chemical which can be used in processes for fuel cell production and biodiesel manufacture. In the industrial synthesis of methanol, knowing the temperature and pressure makes it easier for experts to calculate molar amounts that permit good estimation of stoichiometric relationships in the system. Avogadro stated “My studies of the natural sciences have particularly involved that part of physics which looks at the atomic world: the properties of molecules, the forces involved in their movement, the heat capacity of different substances, expansion of gases by heat, and the density and pressure of gases.”

Understanding Physical and Chemical Changes

The next idea that chapter 9 talked about was physical and chemical changes. The general properties of matter such as color, density, hardness, are examples of physical properties. Properties that describe how a substance changes into a completely different substance are called chemical properties. Flammability and corrosion/oxidation resistance are examples of chemical properties. Some fun facts about physical and chemical properties are: Most physical changes can be reversed, chemical changes cannot, flame is affiliated with most chemical changes, you can have both a physical and chemical change at the same time, and chemical changes produce something new.

State of matter is a topic that was discussed as well. There are four natural states of matter: Solids, liquids, gases and plasma. n a solid, particles are packed tightly together so they don't move much. The electrons of each atom are constantly in motion, so the atoms have a small vibration, but they are fixed in their position. Because of this, particles in a solid have very low kinetic energy.

Solids have a definite shape, as well as mass and volume, and do not fit the shape of the container in which they are placed. Solids also have a high density, meaning that the particles are tightly packed together. In a liquid, the particles are more loosely packed than in a solid and are able to flow around each other, giving the liquid an indefinite shape. Therefore, the liquid will conform to the shape of its container. Much like solids, liquids (most of which have a lower density than solids) are incredibly difficult to compress.In a gas, the particles have a great deal of space between them and have high kinetic energy. A gas has no definite shape or volume. If unconfined, the particles of a gas will spread out indefinitely; if confined, the gas will expand to fill its container. When a gas is put under pressure by reducing the volume of the container, the space between particles is reduced and the gas is compressed. Plasma is not a common state of matter here on Earth. Stars are essentially superheated balls of plasma. Plasma consists of highly charged particles with extremely high kinetic energy. The noble gases (helium, neon, argon, krypton, xenon and radon) are often used to make glowing signs by using electricity to ionize them to the plasma state.

Kinetic Molecular theory is the last topic discussed in chapter 9. Kinetic molecular theory states that gas particles are in constant motion and exhibit perfectly elastic collisions. This theory can be used to explain both Charles' and Boyle's Laws. The average kinetic energy of a collection of gas particles is straight corresponding to temperature only. The formula is vrms=√3RTM v r m s = 3 R T M, where vrms is the root-mean-square of the velocity, Mm is the molar mass of the gas in kilograms per mole, R is the molar gas constant, and T is the temperature in Kelvin.

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Conclusion

In conclusion, Ideal gas laws, physical and chemical changes, state of matter, and Kinetic Molecular energy are all very important topics that were discussed. Introduction to Chemistry, chapter 9 I learned a lot of things I didn't know about each one that I found very interesting.    

Works Cited

  1. Nivaldo J. Tro. (2021). Chemistry: Structure and Properties. Pearson.
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Physical and Chemical Changes Depicted in Ideal Gas Laws. (2023, August 31). GradesFixer. Retrieved April 19, 2024, from https://gradesfixer.com/free-essay-examples/physical-and-chemical-changes-depicted-in-ideal-gas-laws/
“Physical and Chemical Changes Depicted in Ideal Gas Laws.” GradesFixer, 31 Aug. 2023, gradesfixer.com/free-essay-examples/physical-and-chemical-changes-depicted-in-ideal-gas-laws/
Physical and Chemical Changes Depicted in Ideal Gas Laws. [online]. Available at: <https://gradesfixer.com/free-essay-examples/physical-and-chemical-changes-depicted-in-ideal-gas-laws/> [Accessed 19 Apr. 2024].
Physical and Chemical Changes Depicted in Ideal Gas Laws [Internet]. GradesFixer. 2023 Aug 31 [cited 2024 Apr 19]. Available from: https://gradesfixer.com/free-essay-examples/physical-and-chemical-changes-depicted-in-ideal-gas-laws/
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