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Poverty is a fundamental and major problem that exists in this world, even in our country, Indonesia. Poverty itself has a huge impact, like in the economy sector, social sector, etc. if a country has a level of poverty that can not be tolerated it will destroy the country’s economy, and even can destroy the country itself, because when the majority of the population is poor this means people’s purchasing power is very low, whereas the necessities of life society itself is quite high. It seems that the reporting of poverty cases in Indonesia is rarely lifted by the media, but poverty in Indonesia is still very high and unique poverty in Indonesia has a pattern, the farther from the capital, Jakarta, the higher the poverty level. Papua is ranked first in the poorest areas in Indonesia with the number of poor people 914,87 thousand (28.4%) and then in second place West Papua with the poor as many as 223.6 thousand people (24.8%) and rated to three are Nusa Tenggara Timur with 1.14 million people (22.01%) of the poor.
Poverty is a condition where occurs inability to fulfill the basic needs of life such as food, clothing, shelter, education, and health. Poverty itself can occur because of the scarcity of basic needs fulfillment, or the difficulty of access to education and employment. Poverty is a global problem that everyone should care about. Frequently, poverty can be defined in two ways, either relative or absolute terms. The first one is Absolute poverty, measures poverty in relation to the amount of money necessary to meet basic needs such as food, clothing, and shelter. The concept of absolute poverty is not concerned with the broader quality of life issues or with the overall level of inequality in society. The concept, therefore, fails to recognize that individuals have important social and cultural needs. This, and similar criticisms, led to the development of the concept of the second definition that is Relative poverty, defines poverty in relation to the economic status of other members of the society: people are poor if they fall below prevailing standards of living in a given societal context. An important criticism of both concepts is that they are largely concerned with income and consumption. The World Bank Organization describes poverty in this way: “Poverty is hunger. Poverty is lack of shelter. Poverty is being sick and not being able to see a doctor. Poverty is not having access to school and not knowing how to read. Poverty is not having a job, is fear for the future, living one day at a time. Poverty has many faces, changing from place to place and across time, and has been described in many ways. Most often, poverty is a situation people want to escape. So poverty is a call to action — for the poor and the wealthy alike — a call to change the world so that much more may have enough to eat, adequate shelter, access to education and health, protection from violence, and a voice in what happens in their communities.”
Targets (Outcome) and Indicators1.1 By 2030, eradicate extreme poverty for all people everywhere, currently measured as people living on less than $1.25 a day.
The proportion of population below the international poverty line, by sex, age, employment status and geographical location (urban/rural)
By 2030, reduce at least by half the proportion of men, women, and children of all ages living in poverty in all its dimensions according to national definitions.
The proportion of the population living below the national poverty line, by sex and age.
The proportion of men, women, and children of all ages living in poverty in all its dimensions according to national definitions.
Implement nationally appropriate social protection systems and measures for all, including floors, and by 2030 achieve substantial coverage of the poor and the vulnerable.
The proportion of the population covered by social protection floors/systems, by sex, distinguishing children, unemployed persons, older persons, persons with disabilities, pregnant women, newborns, work-injury victims and the poor and the vulnerable.
By 2030, ensure that all men and women, in particular, the poor and the vulnerable, have equal rights to economic resources, as well as access to basic services, ownership, and control over land and other forms of property, inheritance, natural resources, appropriate new technology, and financial services, including microfinance.
The proportion of the population living in households with access to basic services.
The proportion of the total adult population with secure tenure rights to land, with legally recognized documentation and who perceive their rights to land as secure, by sex and by type of tenure.
By 2030, build the resilience of the poor and those in vulnerable situations and reduce their exposure and vulnerability to climate-related extreme events and other economic, social and environmental shocks and disasters.
A number of deaths, missing persons and persons affected by disaster per 100,000 people.
Direct disaster economic loss in relation to global gross domestic product.
Number of countries with national and local disaster risk reduction strategies
Progress Despite the fact that the global poverty rate has been halved since 2000, intensified efforts are required to boost the incomes, alleviate the suffering and build the resilience of those individuals still living in extreme poverty, in particular in sub-Saharan Africa. Social protection systems need to be expanded and risks need to be mitigated for disaster-prone countries, which also tend to be the most impoverished. In 2013, an estimated 767 million people lived below the international poverty line of $1.90 a day, down from 1.7 billion people in 1999. That figure reflects a decrease in the global poverty rate from 28 percent in 1999 to 11 percent in 2013. The most significant progress was seen in Eastern and South-Eastern Asia, where the rate declined from 35 percent in 1999 to 3 percent in 2013. In contrast, 42 percent of people in sub-Saharan Africa continued to subsist in conditions of extreme poverty in 2013. In 2016, just under 10 percent of the world’s workers were living with their families on less than $1.90 per person per day, down from 28 percent in 2000. In the least developed countries, nearly 38 percent of workers in 2016 were living below the poverty line.
Social protection systems are fundamental to preventing and reducing poverty and inequality at every stage of people’s lives, through benefits for children, mothers with new-born, persons with disabilities, older persons and those persons who are poor and without jobs. Preliminary data show that in 2016, only 45 percent of the world’s population was effectively protected by a social protection system and that coverage varied widely across countries and regions. In 2016, 68 percent of people above retirement age received a pension. However, that global average masks large regional differences. In Oceania, excluding Australia and New Zealand, and in sub-Saharan Africa, only 10 percent and 22 percent, respectively, of people above retirement age received a pension in 2016. Other vulnerable groups lack social protections as well. In 2016, only 28 percent of people with severe disabilities collected disability benefits, only 22 percent of unemployed individuals worldwide received unemployment benefits and only 41 percent of women giving birth received maternity benefits. Building the resilience of the poor and strengthening disaster risk reduction is a core development strategy for ending extreme poverty in the most afflicted countries. Economic losses from disasters are now reaching an average of $250 billion to $300 billion a year. Disaster risk globally is highly concentrated in low- and lower-middle-income countries. In relation to the size of their economies, small island developing States have borne a disproportionate impact.
In Pancasila mentioned in the second precept that is, a just and civilized humanity, in the precepts explained that we as human beings must be fair and civilized towards our neighbor, can be realized in such ways as to uphold equality, and duties of others, tolerance, and others. also, one of the basic rights of human beings is the right to life, in this case, Pancasila indirectly demands all members of society to be able to live well. Then, also poured in the 5th precept, social justice for all the people of Indonesia, namely the creation of equality in all aspects among the community is one of the goals to be achieved by the Indonesian nation, this is in line with SDG point number 1 is ‘The World Without Poverty’ where the UN wants to eradicate poverty in all aspects of the world. To make this happen, the government has made policies consistent with the 5th point of Pancasila and point 1 in SDG such as BOS Fund (Bantuan Operasional Sekolah), Raskin (Beras Miskin), and others. this example can be drawn the conclusion that Pancasila also became a kind of guideline or guideline for the policymaker in realizing Indonesia free from poverty.
It can be concluded that poverty in the world is inevitable, although efforts from various parties have been made, such as grants provided by the United Nations to the underdeveloped countries, lending money from world banks. In addition, the UN also issued a program for human survival projected in 2030 to be realized, namely SDG (Sustainable Development Program), in this SDG there are 17 main objectives, one of which is No Poverty, in which there are 7 small points as an indicator of the progress of this program, in this program the United Nations wants to create a world without poverty but not only enough UN itself to work to realize this, but the countries in the world must also be together to create a world without poverty, various efforts have been made until 2016, already 68% of the world’s population above the retirement age received pension money, then the global poverty reduction from 1.7 billion people in 1999 to only 767 million people in 2016. In Indonesia alone various efforts have been made to reduce poverty, national programs such as the BOS and Raskin Funds aimed at identifying reducing the poverty rate in Indonesia, this is in line with Pancasila in the 2nd and 5th point of Pancasila where each reads ‘Just Humanity and Civility’ and ‘Social Justice for All Indonesian People’, in these words can be interpreted i.e. there are goals for poverty in this country to be overcome. Then the conclusion of this is, that the goal of Pancasila in realizing a world without poverty in harmony with the points of SDG issued by the United Nations.
In accordance with the above issues, the government has already implemented various programs to reduce poverty in our country, but if only the government is trying to make it happen, it will not happen, therefore we as a society should be aware of the dangers of sustainable poverty can be destructive or even destroy this country, we also as a society must be able to do something to help the UN in realizing a world without poverty because we are also required to behave so under the guidance of our country, Pancasila. However, the government should not be satisfied with the current achievement, the government should also improve programs to reduce poverty by accelerating economic growth, improving social services and protecting the poor, providing markets to sell the products of the population.
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