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One of the most obvious and immediate effects of Global Warming is the increase in average temperatures and extreme weather events. According to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the world temperature has increased by about 1.4 degrees Fahrenheit (0.8 degrees Celsius) over the past 100 years and Earth’s surface temperature in 2016 was 1.78 degrees F (0.99 degrees C) warmer than the average across the entire 20th century. Moreover, Global Warming also may bring about the extreme weather events. For example, hurricanes formation will be change and less than in the past, but the hurricane may be more intense due to the change of climate. “And even if they become less frequent globally, hurricanes could still become more frequent in some particular areas,” said atmospheric scientist Adam Sobel, author of “Storm Surge: Hurricane Sandy, Our Changing Climate, and Extreme Weather of the Past and Future” (HarperWave, 2014). Another weather event affected by Global Warming is Lightening. A number of victims of lightning strikes will be expected to increase by 2100 if global temperatures continue to rise (Oskin, 2014). Scientists all over the world predict that extreme weather events, such as heat waves, droughts, blizzards and rainstorms will continue to happen more frequently and with greater intensity due to Global Warming. According to Climate Central, climate models forecast that global warming will cause climate patterns worldwide to experience significant changes. These changes will likely include major shifts in wind patterns, annual precipitation and seasonal temperatures variations.
One of the primary manifestations of Global Warming is ice melt. There is a trend toward less snow cover in North America, Europe, and Asia from 1960 to 2015 (Kunkel, 2016). According to the National Snow and Ice Data Center, there is now 10 percent less permafrost, or permanently frozen ground, in the Northern Hemisphere than there was in the early 1900s. Landslides and other sudden land collapses can be the outcome of the thawing of permafrost. The increase of ice melt also leads to the rise of sea levels. In 2014, the sea level accelerated 0.12 inches (3 millimeters) per year on average worldwide (the World Meteorological Organization, 2015). This ratio shows that sea-level has doubled in the average annual rise of 0.07 in. (1.6 mm) in the 20th century. Scientists project that average sea levels will be 2.3 feet (0.7 m) higher in New York City, 2.9 feet (0.88 m) higher at Hampton Roads, Virginia, and 3.5 feet (1.06 m) higher at Galveston in 2100 (EPA report, 2016).
Another effect of Global Warming which expected to be profound and widespread is on the Earth’s ecosystems. With the rise in average global temperatures, many species of plants and animals are already moving their range northward or to higher altitudes which have the more comfortable temperature. Many disease-causing pathogens, which were once confined to tropical and subtropical areas, will also be developed due to warmer temperatures. This development will kill off plant and animal species that formerly were protected from disease in these areas. According to a 2013 report in the journal Nature Climate Change, the effects of Global Warming will likely contribute to the disappearance up to one-half of Earth’s plants and one-third of animals from their current range by 2080.
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