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A theory is a formal idea or set of ideas that is meant to explain something. Learning Theories are conceptual frames that describe the manner in which the information is learned, processed and held during learning. Usually, the same content can be presented in different ways. Learning Theories provide a frame for such learning solutions. Child development theory is based on what we see or observe happening in childhood. Learning Theories are meant that are largely used by teachers to influence children’s learning by presenting developmentally appropriate practice (DAP), enable carers to optimize child-care environments, empower therapists to give the most appropriate treatment, and help parents. In this report, we provide three traditional Learning Theories, namely: Classical Conditioning, Operant Conditioning, Social Learning Theory.
Classical conditioning (also known as Pavlovian or responsive condition) is a type of learning in psychology. Created by Ivan Pavlov, a Russian physiologist. Means placing a neutral signal before a reflex. Stations on involuntary, instinctive behaviors. Classical conditioning is important for learning concepts that originated in behavioral psychology. Ivan Pavlov showed that classical condition applied to animals. He conducted 100s of experiments where he taught the dogs to salivate in response to a bell ringing, even with no food present. Did it also apply to humans? In a great experiment (though ethically dubious) in 1920 by Watson and Rayner. Little Albert was a 9-month-old he tested on his reactions to various stimuli. He was shown a white rat, a rabbit, a monkey also various mask. Albert described as shown no fear of any of these stimuli. Nevertheless, what did surprise him and cause him to be scared was if a hammer was stuck against a steel bar behind his head. The sudden noisy would cause little Albert to burst into cry and discomfort. When Little Albert became over 11 months old, the white rat was presented, and seconds later the hammer was stuck against the steel bar. This was done seven times on the next seven weeks, also each time Little Albert burst into tears. By now little Albert just had to see the rat and he showed every sign of fear. he became a cry (whether the hammer hit a steel bar or not) and tried to crawl away and scared. Experiment results Watson and Rayner on Little Albert had shown that classical condition could have been used to make a phobia. A phobia is an irrational fear, a fear that is out of relationship to the danger.
Example 1. Use advertisement for influence people, for example, some brands may use cartoon characters in their commercials to attract children.
Example 2. If a child is bullied in school, he or she may start linking school with fear and agony. In the same way, students may also start to develop a dislike for particular subjects if they are punished by their teachers.
Example 3. Do you remember getting vaccinated as a child? As soon as a child begins to cry while getting a shot, most of the kids standing in queue also start crying. The children standing in line have already associated the needle with pain. This is an excellent example of classical conditioning where crying is the learned behavior.
Example 4. Link smell perfume to the person you hurt that reminds you of past experiences and memories.
Burhaus Frederic Skiner is a psychologist, behavioral writer, author, inventor and American social philosopher. I will explain this theory through Skinner and his experience. Skinner provided several examples of the theory operant conditioning. It is a kind of learning methods based on reward and punishment according to behavior. Skinner considers this theory simply rather than to be a complete interpretation of complex human behavior. The best method for this theory is to understand the behavior and consider the causes of the act and its consequences. Skinner arrived at the result with the help of the law of Thorndiki which is the behavior followed by the positive results are supported or strengthened and then repeated this behavior, while the negative behavior accompanied by direct punishment until it is extinguished and not repeated.
Positive Punishment: Through application, such as beatings when the child is behaving badly.
Passive Punishment: Remove something is like pulling the phone when the child does the misconduct.
Social learning theory is a view that people learn from each other’s, observation, imitation modeling. and also the theory of social learning depends on the behavior of the person in front of it, whether his family or relatives. Especially in childhood the child is taught by observing others. addition, studies have confirmed that most children learn by adapting effectively through watching TV or friend.
The scientist Alberto Bandore he experimented with Bobo doll in 1961, when he studied children’s behavior after watching an adult model act strongly towards the doll, a toy that gets up by its self to a standing position after it has been knocked down, and the he took children from 3-7 years old and put them in dark room with the toy Bobo and left them alone watching the actions of the children how to treat the doll violently. Albert Bandura also, found that children who were subjected to an aggressive model were more likely to behave in verbal ways than those who were not exposed to the aggressive mode the findings support Bandura’s (1977) Social Learning Theory. That is, children learn social behavior such as aggression through the process of observation learning – through watching the behavior of another person. This study has important implications for the effects of media violence on children.
Here we find that children copied the treat that the man gave to the Bobo toy and they did the same, so this shows that the children’s intense attention, concentration and accuracy in imitating the person in some of these transaction.
Example 1: When l shouted on my small brothers because they didn’t ate so l saw my small sister shouted in same way and in same tone she talked them and also when l put make up so she also want to put way that l putted.
Example 2: When I was 11 years old, I saw my father was beating my brother every day just because to study and then when he grow up, he married and then he started treating his family same as my father did to him, so I realized that however you treat a children when he grow up he will treat the same.
Before we control the behavior of the child must be studied subject. In this report we talked about three theories, which are Classical Conditioning, Operant Conditioning and Social Learning Theory.
These theories have taught us about very important facts such as knowing or determining the motives of a behavior and how to act with it. Parents must help their child by acquiring some of the expertise from scientists who have studied these subjects well. In the end, I hope we have provided the report in an illustrative and adequate manner.
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