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The world “homosexuality” is quite modern and created in the nineteenth century by a psychologist named K.M. Benkert .This would make the term around 200 year old . However, This works as old as Plato’s Symposium there are discussions of similar acts. The thoughts and acts were not the sole propriety of literature, sexual acts between a similar sex were delineated in stories and fine art as well.
American Psychological Association (2015), stated that “sexual orientation refers to an continuing pattern of emotional, romantic, and sexual attractions to men, women or both genders. Sexual latitude of person also refers to a person’s sense of characteristics based on those attraction, related behaviors, and attachment in a community of others who share those attractions. Research more than quite a few years has shown that sexual orientation ranges along a scale, from exclusive attraction to the other sex to exclusive attraction to the same sex”.
Work of Herek in 2004, concerning the attitude towards gay and lesbians often used the term “homophobia’” to set apart a negative attitude scheme toward homosexuals. However recently the term has come under condemnation due to its inference that anti-gay prejudice is depend on fear. As a result, has introduce the term “sexual prejudice” to more accurately and precisely represent negative attitudes toward sexually stigmatized groups such as lesbians, gay, bisexuals and transgender individuals . Sexual prejudice is operationally characterized as negative attitudes based on sexual orientation. The work done by Herek, Mays & Cochran Meyer (2003), state that living in a heterosexist society inevitably poses problem and difficulties to people with non-heterosexual orientations and Many LGB people faces social stigma, heterosexism, violence, and discrimination.
Another theory Given by Zachary L. Tureau B.S.(2003), stated that heterosexism at the individual level and psychological heterosexism, includes a particular individual’s homonegative belief and value system, as well as their cognitive affective and behavioral reactions to gays and lesbians. This includes homonegative belief systems, and acceptance of heterosexual word and deed. Herek in 1995 also defined heterosexism as “the ideological system that deny, denigrate, and stigmatizes any non-heterosexual form of behaviour, identity relationship, or community’’.
Work done by Mihalik (1991), was defined Homophobia: Any conviction system that supports negative myths and stereotypes about LGB people, or any of the assortments of negative attitudes that emerge from dread or aversion of homosexuality. Homophobes respond to LGP people as foes to be dreaded, hated, and actively introverted. Heterosexism is a belief system that values heterosexuality as predominant to natural as homosexuality. It doesn’t recognize the reality of non-heterosexuals. It believes that heterosexuality is normative and standardizing and that non-heterosexuality is degenerate and fundamentally less desirable. Heterosexists react to gay people as unfortunate and unlucky individuals.
Herek (1990), explain that heterosexism is the philosophy that only heterosexual attraction patterns and way of life are worthy. It holds up heterosexuality as the main typical choice, devalues homosexuality, and consigns it into a classification with sexual deviation. The wonder happens at all levels from the cultural to the person’s. At the cultural level, gays and lesbians are placed evenly outside of the model life and lifestyle. Cultural heterosexism includes the social phenomenon that makes and keep up anti-homosexual sentiment. At the cultural level, heterosexism is show by phenomena for example, the refusal of marriage rights to gays and lesbian. These kinds of biases filter through social organization and face to face interactions all the way down to every individual’s sentiment, thoughts, and behaviors. Numerous in the scholarly community believe that advanced education prompts an expansion in tolerance towards people’s who are different. There is some experimental finding to support this premise. however the effect of advanced education on recognition of homosexuality has not been sufficiently investigated. Gays and lesbian in society confront many depressing attitudes.
Homophobia is ubiquitous in India. The discussion of homosexuality in India has been prohibited by the fact that sexuality in any form is rarely discussed publically and straightforwardly . In passed years, however attitudes towards homosexuality have moved slightly. specifically, there have been more representations and discussions of homosexuality in the Indian news media and in Bollywood. A few association including the Union Health Ministry, NAZ Foundation (India) Trust, Law Commission of India,National AIDS Control Organization, The Planning Commission of India and National Human Rights Commission of India have expressed support for decriminalize homosexuality in India, and pushed for resistance and social balance for LGBT people. India is among countries with a social component of a third gender. But physical, emotional, mental and financial violence against LGBT people group in India prevails. Lacking support from Police, Family as well as society, Even many gay assault sufferers don’t report the crimes.
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