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Research on Cloning

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The word clone is used in many different contexts in biology research, however, it all comes down to the simplest form, it refers to a precise “genetic copy of a molecule, cell, plant, animal, or human being” (Sunstein,1999). For cloning to take off, there were other different scientists who discovered what the building blocks of life were, all surrounding the cell. Cloning are organisms that have the exact genetic copies, however, they do not act the same. When a clone is created naturally, it involves with an impregnated mother holding twins or triplets. Identical twins are created when an embryo divides into two individuals with identical DNA. Clones can occur naturally or like Hans Spemann, German embryologist who discovered the effect of embryonic induction, making it inside of a lab. When cloning was just a light bulb in Hans Spemann’s mind; he thought he could separate the cells and duplicate them to make more. Just like the scientist before Spemann, scientists will be all over the idea of cloning and cells (Kasper, 2006).

Scientists have been trying to create clones for more than 100 years. Cloning is a potential use for Nuclear reprogramming, the process of identifying a specialized cell that is changed in gene activity involving cytoplasmic environment. Another potential use would be for Genomic imprinting, where it begins with testing on mice to validate if there was a way to control two cells of a male and female. Advantages and DisadvantagesPeople try to use cloning for pretty much anything they want because it makes life easier or better. For instance, in the article “Cloning considered harmful” considered harmful” scientists tested hard drives to validate if they can duplicate the original to the clone for time-consuming purposes. Starting with the original hardware, they had to individually test the new drivers into their server. Cloning was the solution to their problem. It is similar to using copy and paste inside of a hardware drive.

The work consisted of hours and hours of labor by inputting various calculations to obtain the same result as the first one. Corresponding to the original, the duplicate result, cut the time in half to make new hardware drivers. On the other side of this situation, cloning can be very dangerous. Looking back at the original hard drive which had a bug in the hardware, the issues increase to something more than one small fix. Clone drivers may introduce some “unexpected feature interactions” that may not be a good idea. In the future, those cloned hardware drivers would be easily identified, but the potential bugs will be researched within the duplicate groups. Dead codes can slowly creep into the system unless scientists are able to prevent the issue from happening by maintaining the system. They do this by monitoring the codes to stay active (Kasper, 2006). Cloning animals started when Han split a sea urchin embryo.

Once it was separated, each cell grew into a complete sea urchin, duplicating itself. Reproducing animals may provide vital information that may be useful in biotechnology, medicine, and basic science. It can “generate groups of genetically identical animals” or give information on the basic knowledge of “cell differentiation”. This can also be used on breeding livestock. Scientists could make identical copies and increase the livestock productivity. The disadvantage of this, the capability of anyone obtaining instruction of how to complete cloning actions could be very critical to life itself. This type of technology would be a pool of genetically cloned animals in the future of livestock maintenance (Sunstein,1999). Society Impacts from CloningHumans have many different diseases that include liver failure, heart and kidney disease, or breast cancer. In some cases, the diseases can be treatable by using an organ, bone marrow or kidney, transplant. All transplantation(definition) is imperfect unless it deals with identical twins. Life is short for humans. Transplants are difficult to receive because there is a long list for patients to get the news and sometimes it is not good news either. The ability to clone human tissue or organs will decrease the death rate and people will start to live a better life (Sunstein,1999). Cloning human beings may be amazing, however it raises serious concerns on the overall impact on society. It will interfere with the evolution of the universe by creating a disease that will increase the danger in humans.

The clones will not be affected or controlled however, the original humans will. Cloning will bring detrimental changes to families and friends. There are scientists who do not agree with cloning, for instance, “Boston College theologian Lisa Sowhil Cahill. She suspects cloning may lead to the commodification of humans and genes to manipulate the genetic form in children (Andrews,1997). Allen Verhey, “Protestant ethicist at Hope College in Holland, Michigan”, suspects cloning would make society barbarous involving children an “product”. Manipulation of individuals will weaken the society and corrupt the political institutions (Andrews,1997). IllustrationsIn “The Biology of Cloning: History and Rationale” image figure 2. illustrates the steps needed in proceeding a nuclear transplantation in amphibians. Used embryonic cells as the nuclear donor between the mates. Examines the Blastula in the fertilized egg from the mates and dissociation the blastula to separate the cells to become single cells. Activating an unfertilized ovum with a laser. Combining the enucleated egg with the nucleus from the dissociated cell will equal the process of nuclear transplantation. Finally, one or more cloned frog will produce (Andrews,1997).

Another illustration figure 5. the nuclear transplantation in the Rhesus money. It has the same process as figure 2. the amphibian but instead of using a fertilized egg it is transferred into a foster mother who produces the identical genetics of as Rhesus money. A better explanation is planting a seed inside of a cytoplasm money to produce more clones (Andrews,1997). ConclusionCloning has many different meanings, however, it all comes down to processing an identical genetic copy of a molecule, cell, plant, animal, or human being. The natural form of cloning is only seen when a mother produces identical twins or triplets. Other than birth, cloning is made from science. Cloning can result from a test tube or hardware. Making copies of identical items can be helpful but also harmful. It all depends on how it is used. Society has the ability to cherish the idea of cloning or take advantage and destroy society, depending on the scientists.

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