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Review of Related Literature

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Table of contents

  1. Social Campaign
  2. Violence against Children and Teens
    Violence against Children and Teens in the Philippines
  3. Effects of Violence against Children and Teens
  4. Anti-violence in Children and Teens
    Love Myself Campaign
    Korean Pop Culture
    Korean Pop Culture in the Philippines
  5. Framework of the Study
  6. How common is the form of family violence
    Dealing with the offender
    Dealing with the victim
  7. Conclusion
  8. Theory of Reasoned Action

According to UNICEF (2017), almost a billion of children from around the world are vulnerable to violence. Full prohibition of corporal punishment, necessary for discipline, at home is implemented only by 60 countries, including the Philippines, which still leaves more than 91% or 600 million children still vulnerable. Violence do not only happen at home but also in school and the community. Violence happens to children in places where they are supposed to feel safe and among the people they trust (UNICEF, 2017, UNICEF-IRC, 2018, World Health Organization (WHO), 2016).

For these reasons, social institutions (e. g. WHO, UNICEF, United Nations (UN), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDCP), World Bank, etc. ) (UNICEF PH Media Centre, 2016) have come together to solve the problem on violence against children and teens. Following the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) that ended in 2015, the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) was launched last January of 2016 which included ## goals for a sustainable development to be achieved by 2030. Among those SDGs is a goal to protect children from any form of abuse or violence, SDG 16. 2 “to end abuse, exploitation, trafficking, and all forms of violence against and torture of children” (Sustainable Development Goals, 2016).

Various social campaigns have been launched to address and raise awareness on violence against children. Popular among them is the #ENDViolence social media tag which is widely used and promoted by the partnering institutions on the End Violence campaign. In partnership with UNICEF, a popular South Korean Boy Group, Beyond the Scene or BTS, founded the Love Myself Campaign. The built a partnership is in goals of educating, raising awareness, and raising funds to support the stakeholders, or the children affected by violence around the world (Love Myself, 2017; UNICEF, 2017).

Research suggests to further educate the stakeholders and the public about campaigns and violence against children and teens; thus, the prompt of the study to further understand and support the claims. Along with the popularity and influence to Filipino youth of the South Korean Culture in the Philippines, the study generally aims to understand how the influence of BTS affects the knowledge, knowledge need, attitude and practice of the research respondents on the Love Myself campaign.

Social Campaign

Campaigns, as defined by Lamb (1997, cited by Raab and Rocha, Campaigns to End Violence Against Women and Girls), is “an organized effort to bring public pressure to bear on institutions and individuals so as to influence their actions. ” Campaigns generally aim to raise awareness, inform, educate, influence behavior, and promote change to its target audience and the society (Raab and Rocha, 2011).

Campaign approaches are separated into two kinds depending on the purpose of the campaign. The first approach is to influence behavior, and the other is to gain support from the public. Social campaigns on the other hand applies both, it attracts attention and raises the public’s awareness to gain support, which is to be followed by a change in their behavior to the issue, and enacting into it (Raab and Rocha, 2011). According to Atkin and Rice (2012) from their publication “Theory and Principles of Public Communication Campaign”, public communication campaigns are:“… purposive attempts to inform or influence behaviors in large audiences within a specified time period using an organized set of communication activities and featuring an array of mediated messages in multiple channels generally to produce non-commercial benefits to individuals and society. ”Social campaigns, which are grounded on the principles of marketing and advertising with the aid and involvement of such principles, deliver its objectives to its target audience and the general public through the use of various media (e. g. print, audio, multimedia) (Raab and Rocha, 2011; Atkin and Rice, 2012). Hence, it influences voluntary behaviors, aiming the development of ethical and social welfare of the target audience and the society (Hersfall, Bromfield, and McDonald, 2010). It does not necessarily cater to a specific audience only but aims to spread social awareness amongst everyone (Hersfall, B, et. al. , 2010).

Social campaigns are classified and evaluated depending on its scope or reach, duration or length of time the campaign should reach its and maintain its objectives, and theme or the purpose defined by local context (Raab and Rocha, 2011). The key elements according to Raab and Rocha (2011) to social campaigns are as follows: grounded in the understanding of the theme and its purpose; it should promote the ethics relevant to its theme; it includes strategic campaign planning; careful planning of campaign strategy or course of action to reach the campaign objectives; enacting the strategy into activities relevant to the theme; tracking and analyzing of data as the campaign progresses until in ends to ensure effectiveness; and, financial management to enhance efficiency, and security from mishandling of funds. In summary, social campaigns is a universal process that involves a system of communication and processes in goals of attracting social support and reaching their objectives and stakeholders to achieve a common goal of social good and well-being (Atkin and Rice, ; Raab and Rocha, 2011; World Health organization (WHO), 2006; NC Department of Health and Human Services, 2014).

Violence against Children and Teens

Violence is any form of abuse, neglect or negligence, deprivation, threat, harm, maltreatment, torture, or exploitation done in physical, emotional, or psychological to any individual done in public or in private that happens to every and any member of the society (World Vision International, 2017; WHO, 2009). Violence against children and teens is a raising concern due to its long-term effects to the individual and the society which could hinder development (Sustainable Development Goals, 2017). According to research statistics, there has been a rising prevalence of violence among children and teens which includes almost a billion of children and adolescents affected by violence (WHO, 2017; UNICEF, 2017).

Researches ( ) show that violence in children and teens happen in places where they are supposed to feel protected and safe which are at home, in school and in the community they belong in, among the people whom they are supposed to trust. Common violence at home and in school includes punishments that involve discipline (UNICEF, 2017). Violence at home and in school also comes as sexual abuse, bullying, and school attacks (UNICEF Office of Research-Innocenti, 2017). 1 out of 3 students, between 13 to 15 year olds experience violence in school through the act of bullying done by other children. Violence also happens through online platforms where children get exposed to other forms of violence, and even exploitation (United Childrens Fund-Innocenti Research Centre (UNICEF-IRC), 2018).

Violence against Children and Teens in the Philippines

A survey conducted by UNICEF showed that there is a high prevalence of violence among Filipino children, with 80% of the surveyed participants stating they have had experienced violence. 76 per cent of these were physical violence which happened in their own homes. Boys experience more physical violence than girls (UNICEF PH, 2016; Cerejano, T. , 2016). There is also the prevailing occurrence of online child sexual abuse. In 2008 until 2013, there is an observed increase in the trend of sexual violence against children and teens. These includes sexual exploitation and abuse both done physically, and even through virtual means which happens more frequently in young girls than in boys (UNICEF PH, 2016). Violence in the among Filipino youth occurs due to poverty, the silence culture, fear of reporting, and ineffective implementation and observance of laws (Cerejano, T. , 2016). (table of laws here)

Effects of Violence against Children and Teens

Anti-violence in Children and Teens

Various international institutions have come together in 2015 and founded the Global Partnership to end Violence against Children to end the problem of violence against children and teens. The Global Partnership to end Violence against Children aims “to end all forms of violence in children by 2030” (Global Partnership to end Violence against Children, 2015) in response of the Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 16. 2 “to end abuse, exploitation, trafficking, and all forms of violence against and torture of children” (Sustainable Development Goals, 2016).

Various research ( ) defined that prevention of violence starts with education and involvement of communities in the movement. The #EndViolence is the social media tag promoted by partnering institutions, including UNICEF, to address the stakeholders and the general public present in the social media. As the most used mode of communication at present, the #ENDViolence tag is generally used to promote and raise awareness of the Anti-Violence Campaign through the social media.

Love Myself Campaign

Love Myself is a campaign founded by a Korean label, Big Hit Entertainment and its artist group Beyond the Scene (formerly Bangtan Sonyeondan) or BTS, in partnership with the Korean Committee for the United Children’s Fund in response to the rising statistics of the rate of violence and self-harm among adolescents and children in South Korea (Korea Times, 2017), and due to the worldwide rising popularity and demand for the South Korean popular culture boy-group BTS. The partnership was established on the 1st of November in 2017 to promote, sponsor and fund UNICEF’s #ENDViolence Campaign.

The campaign with its tagline “Love Myself, Share Love” aims to, according to its official webpage with the web address www. love-myself. org (2017): educate local communities about violence and prevention; gain support through active promotion in social media; and, raise funds in support of UNICEF’s #ENDViolence campaign. Love Myself campaign makes use of the social media tag #BTSLoveMyself and social networking sites such as Instagram, Twitter and Facebook, to promote and raise awareness on the campaign. The Love Myself campaign launched with the BTS World Tour: Love Yourself concert produced by the label company Big Hit Entertainment last 24th of August in Seoul, South Korea and will continue with a world tour for the rest of the year. On the 24th of September, BTS attended the 74th United Nations (UN) General Assembly and launched the “Youth 2030: The UN Youth Strategy” with the corresponding campaign “Generation Unlimited” (UNICEF Twitter Account, 2018). The #ENDViolence campaign, aforementioned, is a campaign by UNICEF in goals of “creating a safe and health living conditions for the children and teens of the world” (love-myself. org, 2017).

Korean Pop Culture

Trends of popular culture have been and still are influencing our lifestyle, even every bit of the views in our lives including our style, even to our goals, and living.

The variety of popular culture have been passing on to consequent generations. As defined in William Tuk’s (2013) master thesis, popular culture may be in the form of any print, leisure, or multi-media and that it contains a country’s culture that is produced for a big number of consumers. At present, the popular culture that reins most teenagers’ hearts and even those of older generations is the Korean Popular Culture or particularly known as the Hallyu wave.

Hallyu, as understood and witnessed by many, is not just everything related to the Korean music. Different scholarly researches (Chua, B. H. , 2010; Kim, H. M. , 2005; Shim, D. , 2005; Tuk, W. , 2013) have stated the same explanation and understanding Hallyu, from the term hanryu, was first used in the Chinese media recognizing it as the boom and rapid spread of Korean entertainment and influence. At present, it now includes various products from cosmetics, language, cuisines, and etc.

Hallyu wave has started taking over the Asian media since the mid 1990s. Even before the Hallyu wave, art, achitecture, tradition and music are already evident and preserved in the history—till the present–of Korea. The media that ranked high was none other than the Korean dramas. Through the beauty of their artists and relatable story-lines, it was easy for it to capture the attention of the audience; a sudden rise of demand to this form of media was evident throughout East-Asian countries. Those particularly of Taiwan, Singapore, Hong Kong and Japan were included in the rising demands for this type of pop culture media (Dator, J. , Seo, Y. , 2004).

The sudden rise of demands for Korean pop culture lead SM Entertainment’s CEO, Lee Soo Man, to create another trend starting with the first male group and SM’s previous H. O. T. This rise of male and female groups of artists and their music collectively known as K-Pop, paved its way to fame and now being globally known with over 6 million fans all over the globe (Tuk, W. , 2013; Shim, D. , 2005; Salmon, A. , 2013).

Teenagers and some mere count of adults have grown deep into the wave through the help of the worldwide web and the broadcast media. The rising popularity of male and female groups has brought alongside with it the name of Hallyu on the music charts. Music, in particular has made the most out of its popularity and trend. Various Korean entertainment companies joins into the competition of music and fame. YG and JYP Entertainment, undeniably, is one of the pioneers that started the Korean Pop Music and joining the competition (Tuk, W. , 2013; “SM, YG, and JYP Entertainment’s Casting and Trainees System”, 2012).

Korean Pop Culture in the Philippines

The Hallyu influence and immense popularity weren’t just isolated in East-Asia and various parts of the continent, but have spread throughout the globe. Many broadcasting companies started adding Korean dramas, variety and reality shows to their primetime. Philippines included in the many countries the Hallyu wave has affected (Alanzalon, S. , 2011).

Philippines is one of the countries with the most number of Korean Pop and Culture enthusiasts. Due to this fact, various Korean Cultural organizations have been founded to respond to the still growing number of enthusiasts such as the Korean Cultural Center (KCC), Philippine K-Pop Convention, Inc. , etc. PKCI is the premier and biggest Korean pop culture organization in the Philippines that organizes Korean pop culture events and the biggest Korean Pop annual year-end event know as the K-Pop Convention or KCon.

Framework of the Study

The study will use the Contagion Theory by Bergman and Gladwell, the Theory of Reasoned Action, and the Two-Step Flow Theory by Lazarsfeld and Katz. Contagion Theory

Family violence is a common type of mistreatment or abuse experienced by a child or an adult from a close member of the family or from someone with whom they have an intimate relationship.

According to the article, family violence refers to women abused by their husbands leading to the death of the victim (Roberson & Wallace, 2016). The victim, in this case, is Lida Maria who is believed to have been physically abused before she was shot by her husband Manuel. According to the series of event, I feel that Lida and Manuel had family issues that they are trying to solve and in the process, a conflict erupted. The two started arguing and ended up engaging in a physical abuse which led to the death of Maria. Anger control and solving of family issues in a sober mood is one of the significant lessons that can be delivered from the article. Although family violence involves children, women, and men, in many cases women are the victims followed by children

How common is the form of family violence

Family violence is an abuse that is common and is experienced globally. The abuse occurs in different forms such as physical, psychological, financial, emotional and sexual among others. The form of violence presented in the article is physical abuse. Physical abuse involves a cause of pain or injury to the victim by use of force (Heise, 2018). Although some forms of family violence may not be common, physical abuse is represented as a recognizable and most common form of abuse. It is pointed out as a common form of abuse since it involves major and minor injuries such as kicks, slap, shooting, choking and stabbing among others. After going through the article, I have realized that physical abuse may take place anywhere and at any time of the day. According to the article, Lida Maria suffered physical injuries before she was shot dead by her husband, Manuel. I feel that creating awareness on ways of dealing with anger, may reduce the occurrence of physical abuse.

Dealing with the offender

Family violence is a criminal activity and should be charged in the court of law. Different states have different laws that govern the court procedurals in case a physical abuse case is reported. The incident narrated in the article occurred in the capital city of El Salvador in a wealthy estate in San Salvador. The police arrived at the scene of the crime and found Manuel beside his wife who was holding a gun in her hand as a sign of suicide. However, the police were not satisfied, and they suspected Manuel was involved in the killing. Manuel was arrested, an investigation into the case was launched immediately to determine the cause of death (Stephen, 2013). The article states that the offender should be charged with murder and possession of an illegal gun. However, in this case, the investigators did not present enough evidence to the court thus leading to release of the suspect. According to how the investigators were performed, I noted that some government officials do not perform their duties conscientiously.

Dealing with the victim

The victim of any form of abuse requires special handling depending on the type of abuse they have faced. According to this article, although the victim succumbed to death, she deserved quick medical attention. If only the police officers arrived on time after the neighbors reported to have heard a woman being assaulted, then they would have saved a life. However, at the scene of the crime, some children are believed to have witnessed the whole scenario of abuse leading to the death of their mother. In this case, I view children as passive victims of abuse, and they should be counseled to get their minds off the occurrences.

Treatment and prevention program according to Heise (2018), there has been a rise in the number of crimes involving women abuse worldwide. Women are much affected by family violence due to what society perceives towards them. The society holds that a woman must be submissive to their husbands and fulfill all the responsibilities assigned to them. The article recommends that all offenders of domestic crimes must be punished according to the rule of law. Additionally, the American countries recommend that people must be educated on the rights of women in the society and pass laws that protect women from violence (Stephen, 2013). When going through the article, I realized that all these laws exist in some states, they are rarely implemented. Value of the article from criminal justice perspective according to the everyday aggression article, the offender who in this case is Manuel was not charged with murder since the investigations were not well done. The ruling attracted the attention of El Salvador’s first lady, who aired her concerns to the justice system.

After around one month, the judge ordered for the arrest of Mr. Manuel and charged him with illegal possession of a gun. Therefore, it is clear that the article assists in changing the criminal justice system of El Salvador (Stephen, 2013).

Additionally, the article assists in creating awareness of the physical abuse of women violence. From the article, I have acquired knowledge on how to gather fast-hand information at the scene of the crime. Value of the article to victims of family violence according to the everyday aggression article, the victim is not portrayed as a person of interest in this case. However, the offender plays a significant role in exposing the poorly managed criminal justice system. The writer, discusses the justice system broadly, thus making it a valuable item in family violence (Stephen, 2013). Many cases related to the violation of women’s rights have been reported, but the investigation is only done in a few of them. Additionally, many men involved in rape cases are never arrested thus leading to increased cases of assault. The protection of victims of family violence can only be delivered through an efficient justice system.


Family violence is the primary cause of an increased number of deaths among women. The law must protect the victims of violence and be guided on how to seek justice. I have realized that the poor criminal justice system is a major to the increased number of domestic criminal cases. Any individual who engages in family violence must be presented to the court and charged as per the rule of law. The Contagion Theory was initially by Jonah Bergman (2013) which explains the causes as to how “ideas are discussed, shared, and/or imitated” (Goldsmith, S. , 2015). The spreading of idea is compared to how disease spread, one man catches it and many other follows after an interaction with the infected person. Bergman (2013) defined six key steps behind this reason: social currency, how a value of a person in the society talking about an idea affects its value as well; triggers, the factors affecting people to think or consume; emotion, describes the emotions evoked upon awareness; public, practice of the idea under observation of others; practical value, utility and worth of the idea; and lastly, stories, narratives in relation to the use of the idea. All of the key steps will be utilized since all of the key steps are involved and related in the study.

Theory of Reasoned Action

The Theory of Reasoned Action was developed by Martin Fishbein and Icek Ajzen in 1967. It deals with persuasion and belongs to the socio-psychological tradition of communication. It determines a person’s intention to act upon the behavior, for what reason, and what subjective norm the intention depended upon to answer the question “Why people behave the way they do?”Two-Step Flow Theory

The Two-Step flow theory was initially introduced by Paul Lazarsfeld to describe about the decision-making process during a presidential election campaign in 1944. Theoretical FrameworkConceptual Framework

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