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There are many problems in cancer detection that the world faces today, including the ability to diagnose cancers earlier, finding less invasive diagnosis techniques, less expensive detection tools, and more accurate ways to detect and remove cancerous tissue (1-4). Cancers are much easier to treat and have much higher survival rates when they are caught early (1). Biopsies for cancer detection are invasive and sometimes painful for the patient, so using alternative methods such as biomarkers would make their experience more bearable (1-3). Determining where healthy tissue stops and cancerous tissue begins is another challenge, so fluorescence imaging to see the contrast between the good and bad is useful for surgeons in detecting what needs to be removed(4). These are just a few topics that highlight the difficulty of cancer detection.
InkjetPrinted Platform for Detection of Breast Cancer Biomarker
Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2(HER-2) is one of the few FDA approved protein biomarkers for breast cancer (2). Electrochemical detection of biomarkers is increasing in popularity due to its low cost and simple detection, but a better production method is needed.
Detection methods of HER-2 often require invasive biopsies in order to find tumor tissue. HER-2 can also be found inpatient serum, but more sensitive measurement tools are needed to detect when the concentrations are still low so that it can be caught early. Current methods of production of electrodes require the production of a template, which is time-consuming and costly. The production also involves expensive facilities, many of which generate hazardous waste.
Disposable sensors that are quickly and easily produced are promising for point-of-care detection. Inkjet printing is capable of maneuvering existing obstacles by efficiently producing patterns from digital files with at a low cost, and produce small amounts of material waste.
Detection of Bladder Cancer by Biomarkers in Urine
Bladder cancer is the most common cancer of the urinary tract. Biomarkers in the urine are needed for a non-invasive diagnosis, as well as earlier diagnosis, because typical symptoms may not show up until the later stages of cancer (3).
Today, bladder cancer is typically diagnosed by a process called cystoscopy. This procedure involves a hollow tube and aliens being inserted into the urethra and up into the bladder. Unfortunately, this needs to be carried out by a urologist, is often painful for patients, and takes a while to complete. Biomarkers from biological fluids would be a more comfortable and less invasive alternative, and urine has shown to be a good source for this type of detection.
Urine might be a good source of bladder cancer-specific biomarkers due to its close proximity to the target organ. Biomarkers may help with earlier detection of cancer, assisting in lowering the mortality rates and reducing the number of invasive procedures needed.
Fluorescence-EnhancedImaging of Pancreatic Cancer
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, or pancreatic cancer, is a very lethal disease and the only cure at this point in time is surgical resection (4). Accurately detecting which tissue needs to come out is an important part of diagnosis and removal.
Presently, localization of tumors is done by visual inspection and manual probing, which leaves a lot of room for error. It’s challenging to take preoperative images and accurately translate them to the operating room, so there is a need for an imaging technique that can be done during surgery to detect where the healthy tissue stops and cancerous tissue begins. The methods that are currently used have restrictions, as they need to be operated by someone who has experience working imaging devices and diagnosis may not be completely accurate.
A potential method that could be used intraoperatively detect pancreatic cancer and maximize resection of malignant tumors is fluorescence imaging. Contrast agents allow up-to-date determination of the status of the tissue.
Throughout this paper, I identified various present issues in cancer detection such as invasive procedures and possible alternatives, as well as the cost and accuracy of detection (1-4). I was able to determine that the articles I cited were peer-reviewed by visiting the journal website they were published in and looking through their information page, which lets readers know whether or not the published papers are peer-reviewed. Some sources can be used without being peer reviewed. There are scientific journals that may not require papers to be peer-reviewed before publishing, but they can still provide valuable background knowledge about the issue as a whole. I used online dictionaries to help understand some of the scientific language and processes in order to state it in a simpler way.
Finally, scientific news sites are beneficial for being up-to-date on discoveries, but they may not have undergone a full peer review process. I think the article that had the best solution is the one about inkjet printing because it presents a way to use inkjet printing for the entire sensor rather than just part of it, reducing the cost and difficulty of this detection method.
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