Ovarian Cancer: Symptoms and Signs

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About this sample

About this sample


Words: 560 |

Page: 1|

3 min read

Published: Jan 29, 2019

Words: 560|Page: 1|3 min read

Published: Jan 29, 2019

Table of contents

  1. Introduction
  2. Some facts about ovarian cancer
  3. Three primary classes


Ovarian cancer is a potentially life-threatening malignancies involving abnormal cell growth which forms in or on an ovary with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body. While this type of cancer doesn’t show any or only vague symptoms when this process begins, they become more noticeable only as the cancer progresses.

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Some facts about ovarian cancer

  • Most of the deaths caused among women by cancer is due to ovarian cancer. It has accounted for more deaths than any other cancer of the female reproductive system.
  • This cancer mainly develops in older women. More than half of the women who are diagnosed with ovarian cancer are 63 years or older. Sometimes women under age 30 are also diagnosed with ovarian growths and most of them are either benign, fluid-filled cysts.
  • There are various risk factors that increase the chance of developing ovarian cancer which include a family history of cancer, being over 55 years of age, and never having been pregnant.
  • As per the estimates by the American Cancer Society, more than 22,240 women will receive a new diagnosis of ovarian cancer and more than 14,070 women will die from ovarian cancer in US alone.
  • Ovarian cancer symptoms and signs can include
  • Abdominal swelling
  • Pressure or pain
  • Frequent urination or urinary urgency
  • Back pain
  • Leg pain
  • Unusual vaginal bleeding and
  • Feeling full quickly.
  • Though there are various tests to diagnose, it’s very tricky to identify milder symptoms of ovarian cancer early and there are no routine screening tests for ovarian cancer.
  • There are several stages of ovarian cancer.
  • The treatment, prognosis and survival rate for ovarian cancer depend on the stage of the disease and the age and health of the woman.
  • A physical examination (including pelvic exam), ultrasound, X-rays, the CA-125 blood test and biopsy of the ovary may be needed to detect and diagnose ovarian cancer and determine staging.

Three primary classes

Ovarian cancers are potentially life-endangering malignancies. They can develop in one or both ovaries. Generally, malignant ovarian tumors fall into three primary classes:

Epithelial Tumors

These cancers develop in a layer of cube-shaped cells known as the germinal epithelium, which surrounds the outside of the ovaries. They account for the majority of the ovarian cancer cases, up to 90%, and are the primary focus of the report.

Germ cell tumors

This type of cancer account is found in the egg-maturation cells of the ovary and occur most often in teenagers and young women. They account for about 3% of all ovarian cancers. Though they progress rapidly, they respond well to treatments. Germ cell malignancies are curable for 90% of patients, often preserving fertility.

Stromal Tumors

Accounting for about 6% of all ovarian cancers, Stromal tumors develops from connective tissue cells that hold the ovary together and produce the female hormones estrogen and progesterone.

About 80% of patients present with this tumor are with metastatic disease. The prognosis is good in cases where the stromal tumors is not spread. If they spread, however, they can be more difficult to treat than other types of tumors.

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While Germ cell tumors and Stromal tumors are confined to the area they have attacked, Epithelial tumor spreads initially into adjacent organs, especially the fallopian tubes, uterus and contralateral adnexa and sometimes the rectum, bladder and pelvic side wall. It can frequently disseminate via transcoelmic route, with 70% of patients having peritoneal metastases.

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Ovarian cancer: symptoms and signs. (2019, January 28). GradesFixer. Retrieved February 28, 2024, from
“Ovarian cancer: symptoms and signs.” GradesFixer, 28 Jan. 2019,
Ovarian cancer: symptoms and signs. [online]. Available at: <> [Accessed 28 Feb. 2024].
Ovarian cancer: symptoms and signs [Internet]. GradesFixer. 2019 Jan 28 [cited 2024 Feb 28]. Available from:
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