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Similarities and Differences Between Albert Bandura’s and David Livingstone’s Studies

  • Subject: Business
  • Category: News Media
  • Essay Topic: Media
  • Pages: 2
  • Words: 1013
  • Published: 31 October 2020
  • Downloads: 41
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Media has a lot to do with how the world develops, especially children as they engage in different daily activities and interact with their peers and other individuals surrounding them. The studies of Livingstone and Bandura are among those that identify well with specific factors in modern media affecting children’s behaviour especially as they engage with the most complex procedures of dealing with feelings of frustration and aggression as they mingle with their peers. In context, both studies aimed to identify whether media can interfere with the children’s behaviour in terms of handling emotional aggression as they mingle with others. Looking into different theories of psychology such as social learning and influential learning, these researches were able to outline some of the most critical factors that establish the claim behind the insistence of media effect on how children of the modern society engage with the most deconstructive behaviours leading to the failures that dictate the existence of several disturbing behaviours. In the discussion that follows, pivotal elements that are similar and different between the studies of Livingstone and Bandura shall be identified in order to set a point of comparison concluding on the effects of media on the children’s behaviour. This presentation shall help provide a connecting factor that sets the correlative connection between the studies being analysed.

The first factor to examine is the methodology used in each research. Livingstone (2014) utilized the interview approach so as to understand how the participants view the utilization of media and how much their connection with modern media actually affects both their pattern of behaviour and their reaction to certain unwarranted situations that they have to deal with at a young age. To be able categorize the responses from the participants, Livingstone (2014) utilized the three-point division which includes the type of risk, the platform and the emotion.

On the other hand, Bandura (1963) used the experimental approach wherein the participants were subjected into different settings that were established to influence the way they think and react on the situations happening around them. During the research, children ages 3 to 6 years old were introduced into different settings that are designed to affect their way of decision making especially at the point of impacting their frustrations believed to lead to certain points of aggression. The reason behind this methodology is based on the application of the model theory which identifies with how children copy the attitudes of people they engage with or the people they see.

Livingstone (2014) based his research on the input of children between the ages 9 to 12 in order to establish the point of decision making that children utilise as they deal with certain emotions. Their behavioural pattern is believed to be taking form during these specific stages of growth. Nonetheless, even though they are still under their parents’ care, children these ages are already given the chance to decide on their own as they build the basic foundations of their character. It is believed by the researchers at this point, young ones, even though they may still be strongly guided by their parents and their guardians already show a distinct form of individual thinking-one that basically works towards defining who they are and what their personality really is when it comes to dealing with certain uncomfortable feeling towards others due to learned behaviour.

Bandura, on the other hand, insisted on determining the reaction of children on media with the formative stages of growth which is within the ages three to six years old. Accordingly, this means that when it comes to determining growth pattern, Bandura is questioning how a young child who is just beginning to understand the different forms of emotion is going to respond to certain factors that are designed to affect their point of frustration [the room of good toys for other children but not for them). Observing their reaction and recording their responses to each condition in each room where there were exposed provided the foundation of the study. Although coming from different era and referring to separately different forms of media, the findings in these studies direct to the conclusion that aggression is a learned attitude. How a child responds to it is often affected by learned social behaviour which is often gained from what he is familiar with and factors that he is regularly exposed to. If a child is given as much time to engage with what the modern media offers, it could be noted how important it is for parents to become mindful on how much screen time they give their children between the ages three to twelve years old.

Relatively, the studies of Livingstone (2014) and Bandura (1963) creates the foundation of the understanding behind the psychology of influential learning. Every individual, especially the ones belonging to the younger generation, are prone to learning attitudinal responses depending on how they see their surroundings. People around them and what they see in media all contribute to such form of social growth. External factors that bring about distinct considerations on how a child develops distinct emotions could also be noted to have a great impact on how reactions are developed and shown. Media does have so much to do with how children develop particular disturbing behaviours especially when dealing with frustrating situations. Nonetheless, this study sets a warning for parents and encourages them to be involved in the pattern of growth that their children are taking into account. It is important that every child be given proper attention by his or her parent especially in relation to the time they spend with certain platforms of media.

The challenge that these studies raise among parents is serious. The findings in both researches prove that the influence of external factors affects the response factors that children develop and carry along as they grow older. Definitively, the psychological theories used to guide the direction of these studies intend to prove that when it comes to growth, influential learning should be minded and properly guided especially by the older ones who are caring for the children.

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Similarities and Differences Between Albert Bandura’s and David Livingstone’s Studies. (2020, October 31). GradesFixer. Retrieved May 23, 2022, from
“Similarities and Differences Between Albert Bandura’s and David Livingstone’s Studies.” GradesFixer, 31 Oct. 2020,
Similarities and Differences Between Albert Bandura’s and David Livingstone’s Studies. [online]. Available at: <> [Accessed 23 May 2022].
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