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Smart Grid Structure In Indian Power Sector

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Abstract: Power sector in India is never a satisfactory part. Although they are coming out with many challenges in these days there is a scope for the improvement in different areas of concern. In the problem of power sector like demand supply mismatch, T and D losses, Open access (which acts as a barrier for some states), and many more. In that problem grid management stands foremost these days. There are many discrepancies’ which couldn’t be handled by India and in order to overcome those we need to move for complete automation. Key words: Smart Grid, Power Grid Introduction: As we look in the present data our country stands 4th in energy consuming after US, China and Russia.

If we look into statistics of India the growth rate is increased in 3 years. People of 2.4 billion have access to electricity while 1.4 billion are still not having and around 1 billion have access to the unreliable power networks. The International Energy Agency (IEA) computed, India required a speculation of at any rate $135 billion to give best office to access of power by its populace. Power cuts are principle issue in India and the subsequent framework inability to fulfill the interest for power has antagonistically affected Indian monetary development [2]-[3]. The power age limit increases from 1950 to 1985 were low when contrasted with created nations. Since 1990, India has been one of the quickest developing electrical markets for electrical age limit. Indian economy is the ninth-biggest on the planet by ostensible GDP and the third-biggest by buying power equality (PPP)[4]. The capacity to meet the vitality necessity will rely on India’s capacity to extend residential creation in the basic subsectors, for example, oil, petroleum gas and coal, and meeting the adjust necessity through imports.

In Indian power division, the central, state government and private electrical organizations have essential part. With the private division developing of intensity area at a quicker rate. Indian central government and state governments together control area in India. To create and keep up the advanced economy and society, economy, social and environmental sustainability are required in the developing future pattern of vitality. For the efficient and social development, the prime movers are more vital. The electrical energy is a principle prime mover for this. Be that as it may, there are emergencies of energy in India as well as in the entire world. In India, the state of electric vitality is relying upon two factors predominantly: (a) the framework of the electric power grid (b) Sources of energy. To amend the emergencies of the source of energy the sustainable power sources are being utilized and different sorts of power plants must be introduced in the extraordinary zones of the nation [5]. Since the climate condition in various territories of India is altogether different.

The power grid is unidirectional. The Indian power grid are not is standards. To diminish these insufficiencies, the innovation of “Smart Grid” is required. The Smart Grid can be made by progress innovation, instruments and intelligent management framework. Smart Grid is an important response to the ecological, social, and political requests, set on energy supply. The smart Grid framework turns out to be much more complicated than a conventional power grid as the variability in sources of energy and new unique burdens are incorporated into it. The smart grid complexity will take time to develop and require new advancements for productive, dependable and secure activity and control as the demand for electricity increases. The main purpose behind Smart Grid is to recognize and amend supply demand irregularity promptly and identify blames through a “self-healing” process that enhances administrations quality, productivity, improves dependability and lessens costs [6].With the cutting edge innovations, the smart electric power framework will be secure, dependable and bi-directional. The Smart Grid will give environmentally friendly power vitality, a superb supply of intensity and mix of sustainable vitality assets.

The Smart Grid comprises two sections

1. Intelligent component

2. Intelligent supervisory system. It will be more compelling in the activity, control and observing of the electric power framework. The continuous access to power is the financial and social driver to accomplish the objective of India. With the need for clean and environmentally friendly power vitality sources, the economy quickly developing expands the wages of family, confine residential stores of petroleum products and decrease adverse effect on nature of rapid development in urban and regional places [7]. As per Indian Ministry of Power, there is proposed to set-up around 14.1 GW of new thermal power plants under development by December 2012, so are 2.1 GW capacities of hydropower plants and 1 GW capacity of atomic power plant [8]. India’s installed capacity has achieved the target 200 GW in 2012. Government of India has started the expansion of education system in India mainly on energy sector, to acquaint courses related with energy capacity addition, maintenance, production in the curriculum of the educational institutions. State Renewable Energy Agencies have been investigation of taken the activities to sort out here and now course for installation, maintenance and operation of renewable energy systems in the academic and industrial associations. Renewable energy Chairs have been produced in IIT Roorkee and IIT Kharagpur [9]. Conversion to Smart Grid: Generally, the term Grid means a power system that may support to the accompanying four tasks:

1. Power generation,

2. Power transmission,

3. Power distribution, and

4. Power control A power grid is a grouped the name for all the electrical wire, transformers and infrastructure that transport electricity from power plants to consumers. In these days the grid is unidirectional and it does not have to maximize technological developments. The operation in these days is based only 1 side communication from the utilities to the users. The flow of power is unidirectional from central power plants to demand. This flow is from the lower side to the higher. The present electrical grid system is shown in figure (1a).

The objective of one of the smart grid is automation of power systems that includes transmission, distribution, sub-station, individual feeder and customers using the latest and present trending technology. While introducing the smart grid, consumers able to manage energy consumption by monitoring their voltage and power fluctuations. By deploying the smart technologies, the demand response with the load management can be able to enhance and makes the power transmission system more efficient, encourage renewable energy resources and give those facilities to the consumer for control over usages and costs. During present scenario, Indian Government has more attention towards the Smart Grid technology to cop-up the energy crises for the upcoming future/trends.

This optimal price or the appropriate price of electrical energy is provided to the society from the smart grid. 5. Interactive: The services have been increased due to interaction and real-time response from the power markets and users. Have integrated nation and integrated reliability coordinates which results in market wholesale operations 6. Self-healing: It’s a new feature of power grid. The process which improves service quality, enhance reliability and also reduces cost. It helps in identification of faults and reduces the gap between supply and demand in order to maintain the grid stability 7. Flexible and Compatible: Helps in improving the demand side management by efficient interaction with the customers. Now the smart is capable of handling both the reasonable integration of renewable energy resources, distributed generation and micro smart grid. 8. Integrated: A single platform and the model are employed on a grid which helps in obtaining good quality of integration and information sharing mechanism of power grid to achieve the standards, normative and refined management that helps in integration of infrastructure, processes, devices, IT market which helps in efficient and effective use of energy by the generation, transmission and distribution.

SMART GRID COMPONENTS The components of smart cities are both inter related and linked. Integration of components helps in reliability, increase in efficiency and leads to security as shown in fig.3 Smart Meter: A measuring device which measures the energy used by the consumer. It provides the two way communication between providers and consumers. When there is a huge demand, smart meters helps the utilities to communicate with users via e-mail or other communication method, this helps in energy conservation.

FUCTIONS OF SMART METER:

1. Respective statistic of multi-period multi-rate model control, it measures active power and reactive power consumption amount. Smart meter ought to have two-way metering capacity, and free storage room for storing electrical energies.

2. Bi-directional communication are supported, can send information and receive command, for example, sending ongoing power utilization data, getting real-time information, meter program update set and so on remote tasks.

3. As per the request reaction requirement, accomplishes the intelligent restraint of aggregate load. Smart meter and smart intelligent terminal will cooperate to acknowledge smooth transition to a detached system when there is a power grid failure.

Demand response plays a major role in both wholesale and retail power markets and to get smoother load curve. DR by which demand will be balanced with supply-side resources to incur a cost effective power system. It should have both supply and demand sides which responds to clear pricing patterns. DSM[10]: Demand management is a process to influence the ability and willingness of users to reduce the consumption of electricity. It is a process of utility to set power usage method of consumers, as per the energy production of utility and distribution capacity, DSM methods consist of monitoring, planning, executing activities of the utilities that are made to push the users to change their electricity consumption. DM is based on the combination of the usage of high-efficiency devices and the energy conservation through good operating methods. DSM is the execution of policies and measures that serve to monitor and control, influenceand reduce the electricity demand. The objective of DSM increase the in the reduction of energy consumption, at the same time handling and balancingthe service and comfort. Metering module Clock and storing module Power Module Communication module Control Module 220 Volt (AC) Smart Appliances: The Smart Appliances is a likewise imperative segment of Smart grid. The utilization of sources is less in Smart appliances. The upsides of Smart apparatuses are not restricted to making life less demanding, but rather especially accommodating in sources sparing too. Transmission Automation: The power transmission framework can be expanded by an implanted vocation correspondence framework alongside the energizing transmission framework and more current which are under pipe line. This automation can be supported by optical fiber correspondence.

One answer for relieve the effect of electric vehicle on the framework is to enhance their charging profile. At the end of the day, we have to keep the pinnacle control request as little as could be expected under the circumstances, considering the additional power utilization from the vehicle charging. This should be possible by planning the charging activities of various electric vehicle with the goal that they are not charged in the meantime. In V2G, electric vehicle give another approach to store and supply electric power. V2G-empowered electric vehicle can sand the flag to the network to convey power into the framework, when they are stopped and associated with the matrix. Electric Storage: Electric Storage advances such gadgets as cutting edge batteries, pumped hydro and others expect power to be put away and dispatched amid times of pinnacle request or to give control from inexhaustible assets. Sustainable power Sources: The Renewable Energy Sources are most essential segment of Smart Grid. Renewable Energy Sources are following composes: wind age little hydro, miniaturized scale hydro, sunlight based innovations bio-gas. To ensure condition and for sustainable development the significance of renewable energy sources can’t be over emphasized It. is a built up and acknowledged reality that sustainable and nonconventional types of sources will assume an inexorably imperative part later on as they are cleaner and less demanding to utilize and earth kind and will undoubtedly turn out to be monetarily more practical with expanded utilize. Due to the restricted accessibility of coal, there is impressive worldwide exertion into the improvement of option/new/non-traditional Renewable/clean sources of energy.

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