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Suicide Bombing: Deradicalisation Program in Underlying Terrorism and Radicalism

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Introduction

Indonesia is the largest country with the largest Muslim majority in the world. Indonesia which has a strategic geographical location makes it has a large population and diverse ethnic groups, languages ​​and religions. Indonesian people who adhere to Islam based on data from the Central Bureau of Statistics are 207,176,162 people or about 87% of the total Indonesian population. This majority community is Indonesia’s challenge in tackling the issue of radicalism to terrorism. The issue of Islamic terrorism emerged after the September 11, 2001 incident which killed around 3000 people. The terrorist act was carried out by the Al-Qaeda terrorist group which was then led by Osama Bin Laden. In addition, in Indonesia, Islamic terrorists have emerged after the bombing of Bali in 2002 and a variety of terrorism cases that continue to occur make Indonesia considered a terrorist nest.

Radicalism and terrorism in Indonesia can easily extend to various groups. One example of this is when the suicide bombing in Surabaya where the culprit is one family starts from parents to 3 children, each aged 18 years, 16 years and 12 years. The notion of terrorism can be seen in law number 15 of 2003 concerning the stipulation of a regulation in lieu of law number 1 of 2002 concerning the eradication of criminal acts of terrorism, namely:

‘Terrorism is the use of violence or threats of violence to create an atmosphere of terror or fear of people in a widespread manner or cause mass casualties, by seizing independence or loss of life and property of others or causing damage or destruction to vital strategic objects or environment or public facilities or international facilities ‘. While radicalism refers to a large dictionary of Indonesian Language is’ understanding or flow that wants change or social and political reform by means of violence or drastic ‘.

The history of Islamic radicalism in Indonesia began in the early days of Indonesian independence, namely DI / TII, which was led by Kartosuwiryo. DI / TII rebelled from the Indonesian government with the aim of establishing an Islamic State of Indonesia. Until the post-reform period there were still many Islamic radical groups such as Jamaah Islamiyah, the Jamaah Anshar Daulah and Mujahidin of East Indonesia.

Deradicalization is early detection, counteracting from the start, and targeting various potential layers with various forms and variants relevant to each target group. The term deradicalisation refers to an effort to deal with radical groups not to be radical aimed at those who have been involved in terrorist activities. The Deradicalisation program itself is carried out by the National Bandage for Counter Terrorism (BNPT) which is based on Presidential Regulation Number 46 of 2010 concerning the National Counter Terrorism Agency. BNPT has the main task of first compiling policies, strategies, secondly coordinating government agencies in the implementation of tasks, third is implementing policies by forming a task force consisting of government elements in accordance with their respective duties, functions and authorities. BNPT tends to use a soft approach where in handling terrorism here uses the hearts and minds approach which is part of anti-terrorism activities to resolve issues that are considered the root cause of the emergence of a group of people to carry out acts of terrorism. Because lately there is still legal inequality in handling the issue of deradicalization and terrorism programs, the BNPT is still not effective.

Discussion

Indonesia’s background is one of fertile land or ‘paradise’, both as a source of group recruitment and action: First, the Islamic religious factor which is embraced by the majority of the Indonesian people. Second, geographical factors are very influential. The vastness of the territory and the stretch of the Indonesian islands, greatly benefited terrorism. Because their mobility will be very difficult to detect

In addition, various US facilities that are located in Indonesia are targeted. And also the ability of security forces is limited. Third, the socio-economic factors of bombers which are very concerning are the main cause. The point is poverty and discrimination. According to them, it’s better to seek heaven than to live in poverty and always be rewarded with beautiful rewards after death. Fourth, the charisma factor of those who spread the doctrine is influential. For example Dr. Azhari or Noordin Moh. Top, his followers in Indonesia were very fascinated by the greatness of these two figures. Especially, how they willingly leave all kinds of world pleasures they have for jihad. Fifth, a person’s level of education influences their understanding of Islam. Interpretations are also carried out by terrorist groups, but they only translate holy verses in black and white. Jihad is no longer interpreted as resistance to oneself, but the killing and destruction of all things related to the West. They also did not feel guilty by participating in sacrificing non-US people in the bomb attack, because it was different from assassination. That is, bomb victims are intermediaries to convey messages to the desired parties.

According to Benny Sumardiana the way they spread the radical teachings is in several ways that the government should be able to anticipate them as efficiently as possible to avoid all the very severe risks. The first is to spread radical understanding through educational institutions. Students are targets that are easily influenced by extremists because students have a psychological condition that is still fragile if their own teacher or their friends spread radical ideas. Second is the spread through religious institutions. In places of worship in Jakarta and surrounding areas, they have been identified as being exposed to radicalism, of course the place of worship can be rhetoric from their sermons so that their listeners can get infected with radicalism. Third through social conditions. When referring to the incident of a suicide bombing in Surabaya, one of the families became a suicide bomber. Children will follow the teachings of their parents so that they are also exposed to radicalism. Then, a fairly easy way to find is the spread through the internet, lots of content containing propaganda to recruitment prospective terrorist members via the internet. ISIS is one of the terrorist groups that are most active in propagating on the internet.

After they are exposed to understanding radicalism they tend to have siakp characteristics that can be identified. First they are intelligence, they do not want to hear opinions, beliefs and even respect others. Both of them will be fanatics, they will always feel the right themselves even consider other people who disagree with him is wrong. Third exclusive, they will tend to distinguish themselves from other people even with people who are religious. Finally, the fourth is they are revolutionaries, where they have the desire to be achieved by all means including violence

The current implementation of the deradicalisation program carried out by the security forces is limited to the level of policy makers at the Headquarters or central level as in the scope of Kemenkopolhukam and BNPT. The deradicalization program itself was effectively held since 2005 and was pioneered by the National Police, specifically the Police Bomb Task Force. The initial goal of the program is to make certain terrorist prisoners cooperative in the police force and are expected to provide information that supports investigation and investigation. In addition, the program was also intended to prevent detainees from displaying hostile attitudes and behavior with those they perceived as enemies. For this reason, several law enforcement officers were selected who had certain qualities, such as extensive experience in dealing with and investigating terrorists with Muslim backgrounds, so that they also understood the exclusive culture of radical group networks. In the current development, the synergy of the deradicalisation program still seems unable to anticipate various problems. In the matter of conceptualization, de-radicalization is not only limited to rehabilitation because in reality the program also includes the families of terrorist prisoners. But Dedi Prasetyo still says that this deradicalisation program is still not running effectively because of the contrast of the cain of commands in coordination, communication and cooperation. In addition, Prasetyo also argued that the difficulties faced were the quality of human resources from the apparatus in the deradicalization program.

Meaningful deradicalization of deideologization should be a program aimed at all levels of society. Where indicators of the success of the program include the growth of the ability to detect and prevent as early as possible the existence of danger or the threat of radical understanding spread by leaders, supporters or sympathizers of the radical movement. Both conventionally and using social media or information technology are growing very rapidly today. Deradicalization programs must be implemented in synergy between security forces as the main component and also by all other components of the nation as a supporting component to improve the ability of the preventive force and deterrence of the community against the development of radical ideas that lead to acts of terrorism.

The most difficult deradicalization parameters to achieve are: First is openness. Second is critical thinking. the third is the feeling of the context of daar al harb (state of war) and daar as salam (state of peace). Kempat is empathy for victims of terrorism. Fifth is the release of violence. Sixth is self empowerment. Seventh is continuous learning. The eighth is an adjustment to the wider community. The ninth is social reintegration. Tenth is mental independence for example avoiding blunt obedience. Eleventh is tolerance to other community groups. Twelfth is a good relationship with heterogeneous members of society. Thirteenth is understanding local wisdom. Fourteenth is citizenship. Fifteenth is courage against group pressure. The sixteenth is to promote an anti-violence message openly. Seventeenth is endurance in promoting anti-violence messages to the public; and eighteenth are young people who inspire to be agents of change in promoting anti-violence messages. According to former convicts of terrorism, achieving openness to people outside the jihad group is not easy but still possible. Conversely, young people who inspire being agents of change in promoting anti-violence messages in mass media or online media or forums are the most difficult even though some former terrorism activists have reached this. By looking at the success or failure of rehabilitation, the next objective of this final stage is to strengthen the rehabilitation of prisoner outcomes. evaluate whether they really can adjust to society, and see if the community wants to accept their presence. In addition, the effectiveness or de-radicalization also needs to be supported by the availability of regulations. In the Republic of Indonesia Presidential Regulation Number 46 of 2010 concerning BNPT, de-radicalization was carried out by the Deputy for Prevention, Protection and Deradicalization of the BNPT. In carrying out the task of formulating, coordinating and implementing policies, strategies and national counter-terrorism measures in the fields of prevention, protection and deradicalization, these deputies carry out functions including the implementation of socialization of counter-terrorism prevention in the areas of prevention, protection and deradicalization, and coordination of the implementation of reeducation and resocialization in the framework of deradicalization.

Nonetheless, the deradicalisation concept and strategy was not further explained in the Republic of Indonesia Presidential Regulation Number 46 of 2010 concerning BNPT, so that it was carried out without clear measurement of success, monitoring, and evaluation. Existing regulations, namely Law No. 15 of 2003 and Presidential Regulation No. 46 of 2010 which were later amended by Presidential Regulation Number 12 of 2012 concerning Amendment to Presidential Regulation Number 46 of 2010 concerning BNPT, have not yet become a unified and consistent set of arrangements implementation of deradicalization. This then made the BNPT not free to move in carrying out deradicalization. So far, efforts to prevent and deal with terrorism are still poorly coordinated because each agency has its own program in dealing with terrorism (dualism program). Synergy between all relevant institutions under BNPT coordination in carrying out de-radicalization is needed because the deradicalization target concerns the radicalization rate of different terrorists so that the handling must also be different.

Conclusion

There are a number of things that have been good in dealing with the issue of radicalism and terrorism by the government. The first is to create a new institution that focuses on dealing with Terrorism cases, namely the National Counter Terrorism Agency as an institution that tackles issues of terrorism and radicalism with a more soft power approach. Whereas before 2010, prior to the existence of the National Agency for Combating Terrorism, the Government handled these issues with a focus on hard power as carried out by the special department 88.

In addition, the current state institutions in handling terrorism cases are still having difficulties. In my opinion, at this time it is indeed far better with the presence of BNPT in counter-terrorism, unfortunately there is a overlapping of law-shrimp as happened between the national republic of Indonesia and the police republic of Indonesia. In addition, the indicators or parameters of the success of a deradicalisation must be needed by the convicts themselves. It will be necessary for human resources to handle these cases to provide adequate training so that they have competent skills in handling these issues.

References:

  1. bcc.com. (2018, November 19). Masjid di lingkungan pemerintah terpapar radikalisme, 17 masuk kategori parah. Retrieved from https://www.bbc.com/indonesia/indonesia-46253635#orb-banner
  2. bps.go.id. (2010). Retrieved from Penduduk Menurut Wilayah dan Agama yang Dianut: https://sp2010.bps.go.id/index.php/site/tabel?tid=321&wid=0
  3. Golose, P. R. (2009). Deradikalisasi Terorisme Humanis, Soul Approach dan Menyentuh Akar Rumput. Jakarta: Yayasan Pengembangan Kajian Ilmu Kepolisian.
  4. Hadi, N. (2018, Mei 13). Pelaku Bom di Surabaya Satu Keluarga, Begini Pembagian Tugasnya. Retrieved from tempo.co: https://nasional.tempo.co/read/1088460/pelaku-bom-di-surabaya-satu-keluarga-begini-pembagian-tugasnya/full&view=ok
  5. Hermastuti, M. D. (2016). RESPON ORGANISASI ISLAM TRANSNASIONAL DI INDONESIA TERHADAP PROGRAM DERADIKALISASI BADAN NASIONAL PENANGGULANGAN TERORISME.
  6. kbbi.web.id. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://kbbi.web.id/radikalisme
  7. Mubarak, Z. (2012). Fenomena Terorisme di Indonesia: Kajian Aspek Teologi, Ideologi dan Gerakan. Salam : Jurnal studi masyarakat Islam.
  8. Prasetyo, D. (2016). Sinergi TNI-Polri dalam Deradikalisasi.
  9. SETARA Institute for Democracy and Peace. (2012). In Dari Radikalisme Menuju Terorisme: Studi Relasi dan Transformasi Organisasi Islam Radikal di Jawa Tengah dan D.I. Yogyakarta. Jakarta: Pustaka Masyarakat Setara.

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Suicide Bombing: Deradicalisation Program in Underlying Terrorism and Radicalism. (2022, May 24). GradesFixer. Retrieved June 26, 2022, from https://gradesfixer.com/free-essay-examples/suicide-bombing-deradicalisation-program-in-underlying-terrorism-and-radicalism/
“Suicide Bombing: Deradicalisation Program in Underlying Terrorism and Radicalism.” GradesFixer, 24 May 2022, gradesfixer.com/free-essay-examples/suicide-bombing-deradicalisation-program-in-underlying-terrorism-and-radicalism/
Suicide Bombing: Deradicalisation Program in Underlying Terrorism and Radicalism. [online]. Available at: <https://gradesfixer.com/free-essay-examples/suicide-bombing-deradicalisation-program-in-underlying-terrorism-and-radicalism/> [Accessed 26 Jun. 2022].
Suicide Bombing: Deradicalisation Program in Underlying Terrorism and Radicalism [Internet]. GradesFixer. 2022 May 24 [cited 2022 Jun 26]. Available from: https://gradesfixer.com/free-essay-examples/suicide-bombing-deradicalisation-program-in-underlying-terrorism-and-radicalism/
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