Natural Selection: Survival of The Fittest

About this sample

About this sample


Words: 775 |

Pages: 2|

4 min read

Published: Jul 17, 2018

Words: 775|Pages: 2|4 min read

Published: Jul 17, 2018

Table of contents

  1. Introduction
  2. The Genesis of Natural Selection
  3. The Role of Variation and Adaptation
  4. Conclusion
  5. References


The concept of "survival of the fittest" is intrinsically tied to the theory of evolution through natural selection, a groundbreaking idea put forth by Charles Darwin in 1858. This theory sought to explain how adaptation and variation occur within species and organisms. Natural selection operates on the phenotype of an organism, which represents its observable characteristics resulting from the interplay between genetics (genotype) and environmental factors. To better understand the concept of survival of the fittest, this essay will delve deeper into how natural selection works and the implications it holds for the diversity of life on Earth.

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The Genesis of Natural Selection

Charles Darwin introduced the term "natural selection" in his seminal work, "On The Origin Of Species," published in 1858. In this groundbreaking book, he articulated the fundamental principles of natural selection and its role in the evolution of species. One of Darwin's key assertions was that changes in an organism's environment create a propensity for increased variation within species. This variation is crucial for the adaptation and survival of species over time.

Darwin's perspective on nature is eloquently summarized in his words: "Nature, if I may be allowed to personify the natural preservation or survival of the fittest, cares nothing about appearances, except in so far as they are useful to any being." This highlights the practical nature of evolution, where the survival and reproductive success of organisms are paramount. A classic example of this is the development of natural camouflage, enabling organisms to evade predators or stalk prey effectively. These adaptations in appearance directly impact an organism's fitness for survival.

The Role of Variation and Adaptation

Variation is a fundamental aspect of natural selection. It arises from a combination of factors, including random mutations in an individual's DNA and environmental influences. Genotype, the genetic makeup of an organism, plays a crucial role in determining an organism's phenotype, or observable traits. When these phenotypic traits confer advantages in a specific environment, they are more likely to be passed on to offspring through the process of reproduction.

Throughout an organism's life, its genetic makeup interacts with its surroundings, leading to variations in its traits. Genomes, the complete set of an organism's genes, continuously interact with the environment, causing alterations in an individual's characteristics. Over generations, organisms with advantageous traits reproduce more successfully than those with less favorable traits. This leads to the gradual evolution of a population, as better-adapted traits become more prevalent.

Darwin's observation that "No country can be named in which all the native inhabitants are now perfectly adapted to each other and to the physical conditions under which they live" remains pertinent even today. As our world undergoes significant environmental changes, such as those resulting from global warming, the concept of adaptation and natural selection still holds true. Species must continually adapt to new challenges to ensure their survival.

Darwin also acknowledged that the slow progression of these changes occurs over vast periods, often beyond human comprehension. He noted, "we see nothing of these slow changes in progress until the hand of time has marked the lapse of ages." This reflects the imperceptible nature of evolutionary shifts, which can only be appreciated when viewed over geological timescales.


In conclusion, the concept of "survival of the fittest" encapsulates the essence of natural selection, a cornerstone of modern biology. Charles Darwin's pioneering work on evolution through natural selection has provided profound insights into the mechanisms governing the diversity of life on Earth. Natural selection is driven by the struggle for existence, with only the strongest and best-adapted individuals reproducing and passing on their advantageous traits. Over generations, this process leads to the gradual evolution of species better suited to their environments.

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The enduring relevance of natural selection is evident in the face of contemporary challenges, such as climate change. As species continue to confront changing conditions, they must adapt and evolve to thrive. The concept of survival of the fittest reminds us of the dynamic and ever-evolving nature of life on our planet, where the relentless forces of nature shape and reshape the living world.


  1. Darwin, C. (1859). On the origin of species by means of natural selection, or the preservation of favoured races in the struggle for life. John Murray.
  2. Grant, P. R., & Grant, B. R. (2002). Unpredictable evolution in a 30-year study of Darwin's finches. Science, 296(5568), 707-711.
  3. Futuyma, D. J. (2017). Evolution. Sinauer Associates.
  4. Endler, J. A. (1980). Natural selection on color patterns in Poecilia reticulata. Evolution, 34(1), 76-91.
  5. Losos, J. B. (2017). Improbable destinies: Fate, chance, and the future of evolution. Riverhead Books.
  6. Coyne, J. A. (2009). Why evolution is true. Penguin.
  7. Carroll, S. B. (2006). The making of the fittest: DNA and the ultimate forensic record of evolution. W. W. Norton & Company.
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Natural Selection: Survival of the Fittest. (2018, May 20). GradesFixer. Retrieved May 20, 2024, from
“Natural Selection: Survival of the Fittest.” GradesFixer, 20 May 2018,
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