Taxation Law: History and Classification

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About this sample


Words: 1020 |

Pages: 2|

6 min read

Published: Apr 2, 2020

Words: 1020|Pages: 2|6 min read

Published: Apr 2, 2020

Table of contents

  1. Introduction
  2. History of Taxation
  3. Types of Tax
  4. Direct Tax
    Indirect Tax


The most important source of revenue of the government is tax. And the act of laying tax is called taxation. Tax collection is an administrative appraisal upon property estimation, exchanges, legacy of the perished, licenses conceding a privilege or potentially wage, and obligations on imports from remote nations is called taxation. It in corporate all commitments forced by the legislature upon people for the administration of the state.

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Expenses are normally separated into two principle classes: direct and indirect. As a rule, coordinate charges are those surveyed against pay, land or genuine property, and individual property, which are paid straight forwardly to the legislature; though indirect duties are evaluated against articles of utilization, for example, items or administrations, collected by intermediary, for example, a retailer. The tax is incidence on income to define their residential status. The rate of taxes are different for individual or non-individual.

History of Taxation

Tax are not collected from recent but it also were collected in ancient India. In ancient India mau smriti, kautilya’s arthshastra, were deals with taxation system. “It was only for the good of his subject that he collects taxes from them, just as sun draws moisture from the earth to give it back a thousands fold” this definition of tax is given by the kalidas. According to manu smriti, the king ought to organize the accumulation of charges in such a way, to the point that the citizen did not feel the touch of making good on regulatory expenses. In this the traders and artisans should pay 1/5 of their profit in terms of gold or silver, while agriculturist were to pay 1/6, 1/8 and 1/10 of their produce depending on their circumstances.

According to arthshastra, tax impose was particular and there was no degree for intervention. Expense gatherers decided the calendar of every instalment, and now is the right time, way and amount being all pre-decided. The land revenue is fixed 1/6 of their produce. The import duties of foreign goods was 20% of their value. Similarly, tolls, road cess, ferry charges and other levies were all fixed. During the war or any emergencies like flood, famine etc. the amount of tax could be rise. Kautilya’s concept of taxation emphasised equality and justices in taxation.

Types of Tax

Direct Tax

A direct tax is that tax whose burden is born by the same person on whom it is levied. The ultimate burden of taxation falls on the person on whom the tax is levied. It is based on income and property of the person. The examples of direct tax are:

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  1. Corporation tax: It is a tax is direct imposed on the net income of the company. Companies both private and public in India under the company act 1956, are liable to pay corporate tax.
  2. Income tax: It is a tax is imposed on the income of the public or any institutes called income tax. It is a Yearly charge exacted on both earned pay (compensation, pay rates, commission) and unearned pay (profits, premium, rents). Notwithstanding financing an administration's activities, dynamic pay tax assessment is intended to disseminate riches all the more equally in a populace, and to fill in as programmed monetary stabilizer to pad the impacts of financial cycles. Its two fundamental composes are Personal pay impose, demanded on wages of people, family units, associations, and sole-proprietorships; and Corporation salary charge, exacted on benefits (net profit) of consolidated firms. Be that as it may, nearness of expense provisos (whose number increments in direct extent to the multifaceted nature of duty code) may enable some well off people to escape higher duties without damaging the letter of the assessment laws.
  3. Wealth tax: It is a tax is assess on a man's benefits, on his or net total assets. It's anything but an expense on wage, yet rather on a person's riches. Focusing on affluent individuals for tax assessment is well known among government officials.
  4. Gift tax: This tax is a charge exacted on property that is exchanged (as blessing, or by legacy or will) with no instalment (money related thought) in return. Contingent upon the nearby laws, it is payable by the transferor (giver) as well as the transferee (receiver).
  5. Property tax: It is a property assess is the yearly amount paid by a land proprietor to the nearby government or the civil organization of his zone. The property incorporates all land property, his home, place of business and the property he has leased to other people.

Indirect Tax

An indirect tax is that tax which is initially paid by individuals, but the burden of which is passed over to some other individual who ultimate bears it. It is levied on the expenditure of a person. The examples of indirect tax are:

  1. Excise duty: An Excise or Excise charge and furthermore called unique extract obligation is an inland assessment on the deal, or generation available to be purchased, of particular products or a duty on a decent created available to be purchased, or sold, inside a nation or licenses for particular exercises. Extracts are recognized from custom obligations, which are charges on importation.
  2. Sales tax: A business assess is an utilization charge forced by the legislature on the offer of products and enterprises. A regular deals assess is exacted at the purpose of offer, gathered by the retailer, and passed on to the legislature.
  3. Custom duties: A duty collected on imports and exports by the custom specialists of a nation to raise state income. Customs obligation depends by and large on the estimation of merchandise or upon the weight, measurements, or some other criteria of the thing, for example, the extent of the motor, if there should be an occurrence of vehicles.
  4. Value added tax (VAT): An esteem included assessment (VAT) is an utilization charge put on an item at whatever point esteem is included at each phase of the inventory network, from creation to the point of offer. The measure of VAT that the client pays is on the expense of the item, less any of the expenses of materials utilized in the item that have just been taxed.
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Cite this Essay

Taxation Law. (2020, April 02). GradesFixer. Retrieved December 1, 2023, from
“Taxation Law.” GradesFixer, 02 Apr. 2020,
Taxation Law. [online]. Available at: <> [Accessed 1 Dec. 2023].
Taxation Law [Internet]. GradesFixer. 2020 Apr 02 [cited 2023 Dec 1]. Available from:
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