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Teamphone: Disaster Recovery System Application, Review Paper

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Abstract

We examine how to use networks with smartphones for providing communications in disaster recovery. By lessening the communication gap among different kinds of wireless networks, we have designed and implemented a system, which provides Android phones the capabilities on communications in disaster helper. Application consists of two components: a messaging system between rescue worker and the victim and a self-rescue system. The messaging system between rescue worker and victim integrates cellular networking enables proper communication.

The self-rescue system finds different communication network ways for trapped survivors. Such a group of Android phones can cooperatively get a notification and send out emergency messages in an energy-efficient manner with their location and position information so as to help rescue operations. We have implemented application as a prototype application on the Android platform and deployed it on all types of smartphones. We are creating application with a centralized server for communication. First for the admin who will monitor victim and rescue worker and other two for rescue worker and disaster victim.

Problem statement

Over the years, some countries have been in different kinds of disaster which have claimed many lives and damaged lots of properties. In disaster prone countries like Pakistan, success of Reconstruction & rehabilitation projects are very important for normalization of life in disaster affected areas. Injuries due to accidents are among the leading causes of hospitalization in elderly persons, often resulting in a rapid decline in functionality and death.

Applications

The TeamPhone application wraps the messaging system and self-rescue system together, implemented in Java on Android system. When TeamPhone is launched, Wi-Fi will be configured as ad-hoc mode and users need to specify which system to use. For the messaging system, AODV and DTN2 are initialized for routing, and the messaging app is provided for users to send and receive messages. Messages can be sent in three ways: through AODV to reach the destination;  by gateways to store the message at the command center from which the message will be eventually delivered when the destination connects to the command center (e. g. nodes periodically fetch messages from the command center directly or through gateways); by DTN2 in static routing mode and flood routing mode. In the prototype, the first method is the default and other two are optional.

The messaging system is also designed to receive emergency messages from self-rescue nodes and forward them to the command center. The hello message from the messaging node and self-rescue node is flagged differently so as to deal with the unidirectional link between messaging node and self-rescue node, where only the messaging node can receive hello messages from the self-rescue node. In that case, the messaging node will not receive the emergency message from the self-rescue nodes since the self-rescue nodes are unable to discover the messaging node. The messaging node can still be alerted by receiving the hello message, and this alert function is implemented together with the user-space daemon of AODV.

Literature survey

Considering worldwide systems for emergency reporting regardless of their communication method where it’s wired or wireless, majorly we studied some unique parameters of the systems which will help us to define the strong objectives about our proposed systems. Below listed generation wise systems gives us the fair idea about the survey we had done.

Closed-Circuit Television (CCTV) Closed-circuit television (CCTV) is the use of cameras and its wired or wireless network to transmit a signal to its DVR. It can be deployed as a point to point or point to multipoint links between camera and monitor. These are mainly used in surveillance areas where they are needed from shops to airports etc. In mechanical and production plants, these video cameras are used to monitor and take decisions accordingly while at one room only. Some places like the heavy heat generated while molding metal or another area where worker can’t sustain that environment that time such CCTV are more useful and most suited one. Depends upon the requirement these CCTV operate continuously or time being to a monitor. Now a day we have advanced Digital Video Recorders (DVRs), which records 24 hours for many years. It can continuously run and record it in some storage like disk or tape. Also, these CCTV supports IP based monitoring and centralized network-based storage such as cloud.

Advantage and disadvantage:

  1. It can work and may be placed anywhere.
  2. DVR should always be on.

Smoke Detectors Smoke detector systems are Emergency detection system in case of fire which generates smoke first. Such detectors are widely used in areas where there are big facilities like factories and hotels. These systems report the issue to some kind of audible alarm to alert public around it. Older smoke detectors were using the physical process of ionization whereas latest technology enables us to use the photoelectric diode sense the smoke in the air and send an alarm after it. In large areas like factories, it runs mainly on the power supply and not on batteries.

Advantage and disadvantage:

  1. It can detect fire easily and accurately
  2. It can do it only once not repeatedly.

Natural Disaster Monitor App (Developed by Dominic925) This smartphone-based app gives you real-time updates on any global natural calamities like earthquake, tsunami, cyclone, floods, and volcano eruptions on the backdrop of a Google earth map. The app makes use of the alerts published by the Global Disaster Alert and Coordination System (GDACS). The app shows icons on the map with colours- green, orange, and red etc. each indicating the severity of the natural calamity. On clicking the respective icons, the list shows date and time, region, disaster type and other related details of the calamity.

Advantage and disadvantage:

  1. It shows disasters on Google maps.
  2. It cannot help and coordinate and help victims.

Tsunami Alert (Developed Palta Software) This application is capable and built to help people living along the coastal lines across Pacific and the Indian Ocean, who witnessed the large-scale devastation by the 2004 Tsunami. The main feature of the application is that a user will get real-time updates from US government owned NOAA in every five minutes. It will also give details about the area affected, the location of the earthquake and also provide with tips on how to react to it. In Tsunami Alert app, the user will have the option to select 5 main regions- one US and Canada, Pacific, Hawaii, Indian Ocean and the Caribbean Sea.

Advantage and disadvantage:

  1. It gives perfect Tsunami alert
  2. It cannot help and coordinate and help victims.

E. Help Me Another very important mobile app which deals with disaster environment is called HelpMe. It introduces a new approach to building the ad-hoc network using Wi-Fi to enable Android-based smartphones to communicate during disaster time. It works without the help of any GSM operator, and smartly forwards the message on the hop-to-hop basis. It has centralized HelpMeserver to keep a log of all happening about an emergency, once service is restored. This information from a cell phone in knowing whereabouts of the missing person.

Advantage and disadvantage:

  1. It helps using the AdHoc network.
  2. It cannot use any other network.

Conclusion

In this paper, we propose android app, which is designed to network smartphones in disaster recovery. App includes two components: the messaging system that provides data communications for rescue workers, and the self-rescue system that groups the smartphones of trapped survivors together, energy-efficiently discovers nearby messaging nodes and sends out emergency messages including location and position information. App is implemented as a prototype application on the Android platform using the WiFi interface and cellular interface to provide several ways of communications. App can accomplish various message transmissions with affordable power consumption and delay, and greatly reduce the energy consumption of sending out emergency messages by grouping and wake-up schedule.

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Teamphone: Disaster Recovery System Application, Review Paper. (2020, April 12). GradesFixer. Retrieved November 30, 2021, from https://gradesfixer.com/free-essay-examples/teamphone-disaster-recovery-system-application-review-paper/
“Teamphone: Disaster Recovery System Application, Review Paper.” GradesFixer, 12 Apr. 2020, gradesfixer.com/free-essay-examples/teamphone-disaster-recovery-system-application-review-paper/
Teamphone: Disaster Recovery System Application, Review Paper. [online]. Available at: <https://gradesfixer.com/free-essay-examples/teamphone-disaster-recovery-system-application-review-paper/> [Accessed 30 Nov. 2021].
Teamphone: Disaster Recovery System Application, Review Paper [Internet]. GradesFixer. 2020 Apr 12 [cited 2021 Nov 30]. Available from: https://gradesfixer.com/free-essay-examples/teamphone-disaster-recovery-system-application-review-paper/
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