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Technology Effecting Dna

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Advances in technology have a great influence on scientific thinking about evolutionary relationships. Technology advancements allowed more updated and accurate tests to be done so difference can be distinguished between species. Fossil records, comparative anatomy and pattern of embryonic development where the main rescores used to date fossils. With updates in technology resources such as DNA hybridisation, amino acid sequencing and immunisation dating techniques are much more accurate.

DNA hybridization allows scientists to determine the genetic similarity between species, and thus map out their evolutionary pathways more accurately. DNA hybridization on primates shows that humans are more closely related to chimpanzees than to gorilla. The process used to identify species includes, Heat unwinds and separates the strands that make up the double helix. Segments of DNA from two different species are cooled together. On cooling, hydrogen bonds reform between complementary base pairs. The degree of bonding reflects the degree of genetic similarity between species. The degree of bonding is determined by the temperature necessary to separate the mixed strands again. This provided us with new information such as how humans are closely related to chimpanzees, but no gorillas even though the original theory was we were closely related to gorillas.

Amino Acid Sequencing Amino acid sequencing can be determined using technology that cleaves the chain at certain places and logically determining the amino acid sequences. It also Can be used to identify Proteins that are synthesized according to a DNA code. Therefore, a polypeptide sequence reflects the DNA code, and similarities in amino acid sequence imply that organisms are closely related.

Studies on haemoglobin show that one out of the four polypeptides (containing 146 amino acids) is identical for humans and chimpanzees. The same chain in gorillas has only 45 amino acids the same immunization is an effective new technology in being able to see the the precipitation and similarity rates between two species. The procedure consists of human serum is injected into another mammal, such as a rabbit. The rabbit’s immune system produced antibodies to these human proteins. The serum from the rabbit (containing antibodies for human proteins) can be used in tests with the serum of other mammals. The amount of precipitation that occurs is a measure of the difference in some of their proteins, and this is an indirect measure of relationships between mammals. Studies with immunization show that between humans and chimpanzees, there is 97% precipitation. This technique is especially useful at finding species who are closely related genetically but may have different physically features as well at being able to identify animals belonging to the same family.

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