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The Advantage of Practicality Over Interesting Architecture in City Planning: New Urbanism

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Introduction

The New Urbanism is a movement for urban design that promotes the creation of small, mixed land use and mixed-income human settlements. This shift started as an incremental change in the conventional styles of low-density car-oriented, separate use sprawl that changed the urban fabric of cities in the United States and abroad since the 1960s.

New Urbanism, like no urban planning movement, has captured America’s imagination in decades. New Urbanism began in the United States as a reaction to conventional suburban planning. The autonomous, self-focused suburb is seen by new urbanists as recipe of disaster. We blame these suburbs for ever-growing traffic on arterial roads, a lack of meaningful civil life, loss of open space, minimal car-free children and others, and general dissatisfaction among suburban residents. Our opinion is that older, conventional communities are more adaptable and more fulfilling and both urban and suburban (“the new urbanism”).

In the 20th century new perspectives were formed in modern cities based on the zones of use and their separation by the house, work, shopping or free time, together with the growth and popular use of cars in towns and cities. Such experiences were nearly established over the ’80s of the 20th century. Since 1980, in the United States of America, new urban planning has been systemic in developing local communities at the national level. New approach to urbanism was used in the trendy Seaside village in Florida. As a result of the new urbanisation movement, Congress’ role in the New Urbanism can be avoided. The New Urbanism Congress was founded in 1993 by Mr. Peter Calthorpe, Mr. Andre’s Duany, Mr. Daniel Solomon, Mr. Moule, Mrs. Plather-Zyberk, and Mr. Poly-zoid. The movement promotes design qualities that reflect small towns in the United States around 1900–1920. Such amenities include road accessibility, parks, mixed uses, and increased building densities, all of which are funded to combat the spread and reduce automobile dependence. The new urbanism typically anticipates a high degree of local convergence (including integration with existing community regional transit services) so that people are not tied to cars to meet their transportation needs.

New urbanism can be understood as the hierarchy of three layers aesthetic appearance of new urbanism, urban design of new urbanist communities, and land use of the urban community.

Aesthetic style Urban Design Land use

Urban design practices common until the arrival of the motor car before the Second World War strongly influenced the new urbanism, including ten basic principles, including conventional community design and transit-oriented development (TOD). All of these proposals can be divided into two concepts: design of community building and environmental practices.

Various words are seen as synonymous, as part of, or associated with the New Urbanism. The words ‘neo-traditional’ and’ traditional community ‘are often related to the modern urbanism. In general, these terms refer to the completion of the New Towns or new districts, often built in traditional architectural styles, as against smaller projects for infill and renovation. The term ‘traditional urbanism’ is also used by those who object to the ‘new’ moniker to describe the new urbanism. In contrast, designer and professor Christopher Leinberger suggested the concept ‘Walkable Urbanism’.

Support for new urbanism: open-space regional planning, architecture, and planning in a context; adequate infrastructure provision such as sports facilities, libraries, and community centers; and balanced job and housing development. We claim that their solutions will reduce the congestion of traffic by encouraging people to bike, walk or ride. The group hopes that the supply of affordable housing and rein in the suburban duration will increase. The New Urbanism charter also deals with the conservation and regeneration of the brownfield properties, safe streets, green buildings, etc.

Principles

All the new urbanism projects worldwide started of a movement by the architects Duany, plater, Burke, and other designers got to gather and drafted the 12 principles in 1991. Which are now the basic principles of new urbanism.

Walkable communities: 

Walking is a measure of the friendliness of a place to walk. The effects on walkability include the presence or non-existence and quality of walking paths, sidewalks and other pedestrian rights of way, road and transport conditions, land use patterns, building accessibility, and safety, among others. In particular, walkable paths have health, environmental and economic benefits.

Transit-Oriented Development: 

Transit-oriented development is a form of urban development in urban planning, optimizing the amount of residential, business, and leisure space, within walking distance of public transport.

Open Spaces: 

Open space is every undeveloped open piece of land which is publicly accessible. Open space may include green areas (such as grass, trees, shrubs, or other vegetation), partially or wholly covered.

Affordable Housing: 

Accessible housing applies to housing units which are accessible by the social segment whose income is below the household’s median income.

Communities with well-defined centers and edges: 

Long-term housing for low- and or special needs families is Community Housing.

Sustainable development practices: 

The organizational principle for the achievement of human development targets while maintaining the ability of natural systems to provide resources and ecosystem services on the basis of economics and society is sustainable development.

Preserve natural environment: 

Prevent natural ecologies, agrarian landscapes, and cultural heritage sites.

Mixed land use: 

Create mixed use of land, and income as well as mixed-age groups.

Bike-oriented: 

The bike is one of the most efficient means of transport. Prioritize bicycle networks and auto-free streets.

Well connected: 

Increased connectivity of the streets. Increasing the density of the road network and limiting the block size.

Ride using public transport: 

Developing high-quality transport means. Autonomous vehicles will not solve the problem but instead aggravate the problem.

Focus on future development: 

The old armature of freeways and transit development should go hand in hand to achieve sustainable future development.

New Urbanism has spread globally, particularly to car-based cities like Perth in Western Australia where the government of the state has recognized the need for traditional development policy to be remedied. In February 1998, a trial began with a design code called’ Liveable Neighborhoods’ (LN), a version of the 1995 Australian Model Code for Residential Development, which was amended to align more closely with the new concepts of urbanism.

Guiding Principles of the design code for liveable communities:

  • City system
  • Structure of the district
  • The walkability of the community
  • Walkability to facilities and public transport
  • Surveillance and safety
  • Choice
  • Culturally and environmentally responsive design
  • Site responsive design
  • Cost efficiency and resource efficiency

Institutions responsible for new urbanism

The New Urbanism Congress (CNU) is the largest organisation in the United States that advocates the New Urbanism. The New Urbanism Congress is the leading organization supporting sustainable and healthy living, and mixed-use community development. Members of the Congress on New Urbanism (CNU) are promoting the Congress on New Urbanism (CNU) Charter principles and characteristics of New Urbanism, including:

  • small, walkable streets organised.
  • a number of housing options for individuals of various ages and levels of income.
  • Schools, shops and other nearby destinations, accessible by foot, bike or transit.
  • the optimistic, egalitarian public sphere, which describes and animates streets and other public spaces properly designed buildings.

Partnerships were also established with equal minds between the New Urbanism Congress (CNU) and other national organizations. Smart Growth firms often work with the Congress of New Urbanism. In addition, the Congress for New Urbanism (CNU) established partnerships with the United States Green Building Council and Natural Resources Defence Council (NRD) for specific projects such as working on Leadership in Energy and Environmental Designs (LEED) for neighborhood development standards and developed the Context Sensitive Solutions (CSS) Design Manual with the Transport Institute.

Social goals of new urbanism

Types of social goals

The analysis of modern Urbanist values is based on three social goals: community social equity, and the notion of common good.

Community: 

The notion of community is generally defined in terms of two dimensions, a social component consisting of various types of social interaction, and an affective component involving a variety of psychological and emotional responses. Analysis on each of these dimensions is voluminous. Scholars have drawn on the different meanings of each other over the past 30 years so that our perception of culture and neighborhood social life is now fully multidimensional.

Social equity: 

Like the community social justice can also have several different meanings. The meaning applies to the aspects of physical design of urban planning, defines social equity based on the distribution of spatial human resources. This can mean, for example, distributive justice.

Common good: 

According to proponents of the common good, an emphasis on protecting individual rights rather than the common good decreases the liability for individual actions in society. The emphasis on the common good includes private rights at certain times to respond to common concerns.

The New Urbanism Charter includes a list of 27 concepts, each followed by an article described in more detail by a leading architect, planner, or policymaker. The principles are organized into three categories: Metropolis, City, and Town; Neighborhood, District, and Corridor; and Block, Street, and Building. 

One of the most common ways in which social goals are linked to the planning process is participatory design. Public involvement in the design process— for example, through charrettes — is one way of building community based on the idea that social interaction (during the design process) contributes to a stronger, more effective community. New Urbanism is committed to making urban change a public issue, highlighting participatory development and publicly rather than privately created proposals as a strategy that is likely to increase social interaction and collaboration.

New Urbanism’s focus on the public realm often means that the entire urban planning system encompasses public rather than private issues. A participatory design of a public space is much more likely than a participatory design of a private space, such as a shopping mall. In short, the participatory mechanisms of New Urbanism, described as enhancing social interaction and building consensus, are an important part of the community-building efforts of New Urbanism.

Examples

New Urbanism is increasingly changing how and where metropolitan areas choose to grow. At least fourteen large-scale planning projects were based on the principles of connecting transport and land-use policies and using the community as one of a region’s fundamental building blocks. More than six hundred new towns, villages, and communities have been developed or are currently being established in the United States, adopting New Urbanist concepts. To restore walkable streets and roads, hundreds of new, small-scale, urban, and suburban infill projects are underway.

Prospect New Town

Prospect New Town is a new urban housing development located in the United States on the southern edge of Longmont city in Boulder County, Colorado. Kiki Wallace developed the first full-scale new urban development in Colorado in the mid-1990s and was designed by Duany Plater Zyberk & Company.

The first fully new urbanist town, Seaside, Florida, began development in 1981 on the Florida Panhandle coastline’s 80 acres (324,000 m2). In 1988, when only a few streets were completed, it was featured on the cover of the Atlantic Monthly and became internationally famous for its architecture and the quality of its streets and public spaces.

Conclusion

New urbanists recognize the deeper meaning and meaning of physical planning ideals than interesting architecture and good site design. For this reason, some have noticed that the notion that social and environmental issues need to be addressed in tandem is what is new about New Urbanism.

References

  1. Falconer, Ryan, et al. “Is Practice Aligned with the Principles? Implementing New Urbanism in Perth, Western Australia.” Transport Policy, vol. 17, no. 5, Sept. 2010, pp. 287–294, 10.1016/j.tranpol.2010.01.014. Accessed 14 Nov. 2019.
  2. Frank, Lawrence D., et al. “Obesity Relationships with Community Design, Physical Activity, and Time Spent in Cars.” American Journal of Preventive Medicine, vol. 27, no. 2, Aug. 2004, pp. 87–96, 10.1016/j.amepre.2004.04.011. Accessed 14 Nov. 2019.
  3. Mohammad, Rahim Rahnama. Use Principles of New Urbanism Approach in Designing Sustainable Urban Spaces. 7 Aug. 2012. Accessed 14 Nov. 2019.
  4. “What Is New Urbanism?” YouTube, 25 July 2019, www.youtube.com/watch?v=sOaXfc9MuKc. Accessed 14 Nov. 2019.
  5. Trudeau, D 2013, ‘A typology of New Urbanism neighborhoods’, Journal of Urbanism: International Research on Placemaking and Urban Sustainability, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 113–138.
  6. Wikipedia Contributors 2019, New Urbanism, Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, viewed 14 November 2019.
  7. GOUGH, S. & SCOTT, W. 2013. Curriculum Development and Sustainable Development: practices, institutions and literacies. Educational Philosophy and Theory, 33, 137-152. ― 2010b, ‘Is practice aligned with the principles? Implementing New Urbanism in Perth,
  8. Western Australia’, Transport Policy, vol. 17, no. 5, pp. 287–294.
  9. Talen, E 2002, ‘The social goals of new urbanism’, Housing Policy Debate, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 165–188.
  10. The WAPC – Department of Planning, Lands and Heritage 2011, Department of Planning Lands Heritage, viewed 14 November 2019, . ― 2019b, Prospect New Town, Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, viewed 14 November 2019.

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The Advantage of Practicality Over Interesting Architecture in City Planning: New Urbanism. (2022, May 24). GradesFixer. Retrieved June 26, 2022, from https://gradesfixer.com/free-essay-examples/the-advantage-of-practicality-over-interesting-architecture-in-city-planning-new-urbanism/
“The Advantage of Practicality Over Interesting Architecture in City Planning: New Urbanism.” GradesFixer, 24 May 2022, gradesfixer.com/free-essay-examples/the-advantage-of-practicality-over-interesting-architecture-in-city-planning-new-urbanism/
The Advantage of Practicality Over Interesting Architecture in City Planning: New Urbanism. [online]. Available at: <https://gradesfixer.com/free-essay-examples/the-advantage-of-practicality-over-interesting-architecture-in-city-planning-new-urbanism/> [Accessed 26 Jun. 2022].
The Advantage of Practicality Over Interesting Architecture in City Planning: New Urbanism [Internet]. GradesFixer. 2022 May 24 [cited 2022 Jun 26]. Available from: https://gradesfixer.com/free-essay-examples/the-advantage-of-practicality-over-interesting-architecture-in-city-planning-new-urbanism/
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