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To identify the correlation between cyberbullying and parenting style
First of all, loving and responsible families bring a context to teens to feel safe and face complex emotions, reducing involvement in bullying as victims and perpetrators ( Caitlin, 2017). Besides, parental control is associated with reducing the risk of children in cyberbullying and victims (Beck,2009). In addition, Adolescents who are weak in self esteem and self-control are also at high risk in involment in victims and perpetrators (Hong&Espelage, 2012)
In the other hand, There is no difference in the supervision of parents between victims and perpetrators in cyberbullying.
In these recent years, comprehensive study conducted to enhance the understanding among the public on the influence of parenting behaviours on cyberbullying among children. This study focuses on the associations between parental and children outcomes because the influence of parenting style during children gives great impact throughout their behaviour until adulthood. This study acts as a platform to show that parenting style give outstanding effect on the children outcomes. Parenting style has wide dimension including parental monitoring and parental discipline practices. In this study, effect of parenting style on cyberbullying among children examined. Wide exposure on gadget including mobile phones, internet access and social media trigger the cyberbullying among children. This situation need to be controlled and parents have to come out with extensive solutions to avoid this phenomenon from being wider. For information, cyberbullying is one of the major social problems recently. Thus, extensive research carried out to reduce the social problems in terms of cyberbullying begins from the young generation which is children. Based on the finding obtained by previous researhers, 96% of social problems among children occurred due to cyberbullying in developing countries due to uncontrollable of internet usage (Nordfjaern et al., 2011).
Due to the rapid development of technology, it caused the changes on the ways of functioning in society. This situation brings new dimensions in terms of responsibilities among educators and as well as parents. For example, Internet cell phones and other communication technologies, while providing us with conveniences, also expose our students to interactions that put their safety and emotional well-being at risk. This article examines one negative use of technology which causing cyberbullying that is a new form of bullying with distinct differences in form, personality, and response.
According to the finding obtained in result part, majority of the respondents stated that cyberbullying correlates with parenting style. Anti-bullying interventions, classroom materials and education institution policies need to address cyberbullying by making staff and students aware of the problem, and provide help for those who experience it. Parents and staff may be unaware of the full range of technologies used by their children. Efforts are needed to enhance their knowledge, of the dangers as well as benefits associated with such technologies. Such awareness and guidance should include information on relevant legal issues and on ways of contacting mobile phone companies and internet service providers. New technologies are already being used in some education institutions to report both bullying and cyber-bullying behaviour. In this way, the anonymity that is afforded to the bully can be used more constructively to provide both help and support for victims of cyberbullying. In addition, advisory and support materials need to be circulated widely among education institution and communities, as cyberbullying can take place anywhere and anytime.
To compare the gender differences in cyberbullying
first of all, according to study, men find far more involvement in cyberbullying than women (Li, 2016). Besides, found that women are more likely to face cyberbullying than men( Gorzig and Olafsson, 2013). Indirect and related bullying was found to be same experienced by male and female (Craig, 2014).
On the other hand, other studies have found that no differences between the sex in cyberbullying (Hinduja, 2018).
Children today are born into a world where a variety of technological tools have been at their dispersal since their earliest memories. They are being raised in an Internet dominant world where digital interaction often is the primary means through which they interact with one another (Hinduja & Patchin, 2009). While the majority of today‟s youth are using the Internet as a healthy venue for social interaction, the sharing of ideas, and schoolwork (Dowell et. al., 2009), there is a very clear negative side that has recently arisen. As technology has become fully integrated into the lives of children, the negative effects of life online are becoming more clearly identified. Excessive time spent online can lead to increased loneliness and depression (Kraut et al., 1998; Nie & Ebring, 2000), and the more time spent in cyberspace, the more likely that children are to lose contact with their social environment (Nie & Ebring, 2002). These emotional changes can lead to online victimization, now referred to as cyberbullying, which became widespread around 2004 (Phillips, 2004).
When gender was considered, research by Borg, 1999 and Boulton & Underwood, 1992 demonstrated that males and females showed different patterns in bullying-related behaviors. In addition, it was suggested that females might prefer to use electronic communication media such as chat rooms and e-mail to bully others. The research on gender influences in cyberbullying has been inconclusive. Some researchers have reported significant differences in gender, with girls being much more likely to be subjected to cyberbullying, and others have found that gender is not a factor in determining victimization. The findings by previous researchers in line with the findings obtained in result part where female students is higher engagement on cyberbullying compare to male students.
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