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Peer pressure concerns the parent of every teenager. Peer pressure can lead to drug abuse and can too lead to others risky behaviors such as eating disorders. Bulimia Nervosa refer to a psychological as well as life threatening eating disorder defined by the ingestion of abnormally large amount of food within a relatively short period of time. There are two types of Bulimia; (1) Bulimia Nervosa purging type and (2) Bulimia Nervosa Non-purging type. There are several causes of bulimia such as stress caused by life changes, peer influence, trauma, and poor self-esteem, activities that concentrate on the performances or appearances and personal negative body image. With that being said, there are important interventional strategies for girls whose bulimia develops as a result of peer pressure as it will elaborated in this essay.
Teachers and parents interventions. Since young people are great imitators, it implies that teachers, other adults, and parents can play a significant role that helps in prevention of bulimia and enhances positive bodily image (Bearman et al., 2003),. In another study by (Holm-Denoma & Hankin, 2010) the authors argue that this intervention can be achieved by encouraging the girls suffering from such conditions to embrace a healthy relationship with food. In this regard, parents should avoid labeling food as either “bad” or “good” as it sets up feelings and cravings of guilt in cases where “bad” foods are consumed. Particularly, amongst peer girls, the situation can be worse for acceptance of body image is an issue. In the same manner, girls affected by bulimia caused by peer pressure should be encouraged to accept that youngsters are likely to display different habits of eating from adults. For instance, girls at adolescents may need more food and frequently during the daytime. Also, they might go through ages of disliking or like particular foods. Additionally, it is the role of the parent to ensure that their girls eat while hungry and stop when full. Hence, the discussed scenarios “both teachers and parents interventions” are significant intervention strategies with a general concept of encouraging a healthier relationship with food for girls with bulimia condition.
Guided imagery for Bulimia. Adolescent and young girls should be encouraged to appreciate their bodies (O’Dea, 2005). In this concern, it is the role of older adults or parents to ensure that they do not tease or criticize their children’s about their physical appearance. It assists girls affected by bulimia such that in cases of interaction with peers, they can accept themselves and fail to listen to criticism from peers. In another work (Wood et al, 1996) found that encouraging regular exercise and sports helps in maintenance of a child’s healthy body weight. It also fosters confidence about their body. To add on that, the authors says that girls should be “heartened to listen to their bodies”. It aids girls to become conversant with distinct physical experiences and feelings. According to surveys, girls practicing such behaviors tend to reduce the development of bulimia as a result of peer pressure. Thus, encouraging girls to appreciate their bodies they develops a good sense of their bodies hence averting the condition (Paxton, 1996).
Stress management for Bulimia. In this relation, self-esteem is one important intervention. High self-esteem provides girls with a strong sense of self-worth and identity which is essential in helping the girls to cope with pressures or stress of life (Bearman et al 2003). Guardians, mentors, teachers or parents need to inspire youngsters to express their wants, to make informed decisions (and be ready to cope with the consequences) as well as pursuing their personal interests in life. Thus, active coping techniques should also be taught to young girls. Holm-Denoma & Hankin (2010) adds that girls must also be encouraged to grow some critical awareness concerning messages or images that they access from magazines and television. It should be within their understanding that most are intended for advertisement and must not be taken to mean the real situation. Thus, girls with high self-esteem will accept themselves, love themselves and care free themselves hence avoiding stress.
Seeking a professional and comprehensive medication intervention. Treatment policies are utilized in addressing the majority of concerns these girls might be encountering in the restoration of their well-being and health which are usually tailored to meet a person’s needs (Shroff & Thompson, 2006). Nutritionists, therapists or doctors are required in addressing some issues to realize efficient medication of eating disorders among young adolescent females. Such includes medical monitoring and care. In this case, physicians need to address all health concerns that might have consequences of consumption disordered behaviors in girls. O’Dea (2005) ascertains that distinct kinds of psychotherapy, for example family, individual or group might be of great help in addressing any underlying causes of bulimia among young feminine. Therapy is an essential piece of medication since it allows for girls in recovery to heal and treat traumatic events in life, learn healthier skills of coping and techniques of expressing emotions, upholding healthy relationships as well better communication (Shroff & Thompson, 2006). Doctors can also suggest the right nutrition for girls affected by bulimia resulting from peer influences. It involves stabilization and weight restoration, guidance for regular dieting as well as the incorporation of personalized meal plan (Paxton, 1996). Additionally, the nutritionists can address the issues through medications. Some treatment may be efficient in assisting to resolve anxiety or mood symptoms in girls that may occur with any eating disorder or in decreasing purging and binge eating norms (O’Dea, 2005). Hence, the said medication interventions are critical in ensuring that young females live a healthy lifestyle that can significantly reduce bulimia.
Refraining from media, peers and celebrities influence. Young girls are undeniably influenced by movies, media and celebrities. They cause majority of teen girls to think that they do not look good enough owing to massive pressure they experience from the society. The necessary media exposure on coincides with the lifetime in which self-efficacy and self-regard are in the decrease. It is also in the same period where these girls’ bodies are most fragile owing to the physical changes of puberty (McCabe & Ricciardelli, 2001) and where inclination for social comparisons is a risk factor. Girls, therefore, find themselves engaging in a sub-culture of nutrition, hence trying to reflect the information from peers, parents, members of the other gender in addition to the media. Additionally, young females are in constant comparison with fellow teens, causing their personal opinions regarding themselves to be grounded upon this kind of contrast. O’Dea, 2005 confirms that peer pressure is critical in dieting abnormalities. In this case a friend’s dissatisfaction concerning their bodies greatly affects how others will feel about themselves. An ever increasing number of youngsters initially get exposed to disorders of eating through influence of classmates who purge, binge or even starve themselves according to a survey done by (Shroff & Thompson, 2006). Groups comprising of friends normally tends to do everything together, including risky and dangerous behaviors leading to bulimia. Bohus, et al., 2004 found out that officials at school and parents should look for signs of unhealthy behavioral practices as to combat disorders of eating among teens. By dealing with challenges at societal levels in addition to convincing media to offer better role models, teens can be assisted to realize greatness of their bodies and not the physical look. Evidence-based support programs for Bulimia. Self-help options may be beneficial alongside several other therapies a girl may be receiving. It can also be particularly useful in situations where teens are awaiting some treatment for bulimia condition (O’Dea, 2005). Self-help programs allows a young girl to expand her understanding and knowledge regarding herself, and it is specially recommended by healthcare professionals as an initial medication for binge eating condition and bulimia nervosa. An example of such programs is “Overcoming Bulimia Online”. It is a platform for online support intervention which is founded on Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT) technique for females with bulimia as well as related dieting disorders. An adolescent girl is provided with an opportunity to understand, learn and overcome their ailment. Normally, it goes for eight sessions and at the patient’s privacy and pace (McCabe & Ricciardelli, 2001).
Dialectical Behavioral Therapy for Bulimia. DBT connects behavioral and cognitive treatments as a method of assisting an adolescent girl to adapt and learn heathier techniques of managing painful emotions, usually through change and acceptance. The essential theory about this psychotherapy technique focuses on girls who are susceptible to responding in an extreme and unordinary manner in emotional situations relating to bulimia (Bohus, et al., 2004). It was originally established by Marsha M. Linehan, a psychologist at the University of Washington as a technique and an approach of medicating patients suffering borderline personality sickness. Currently, through DBT, adolescent girls are educated on ways of improving self-awareness, conquer self-defeating thoughts as well as a leading center for eating disorders, where it is employed as a main treatment modality (Bearman et al., 2003) identifies, two main categories of DBT therapy. First, personal weekly treatment sessions. Teens and therapists focus towards developing and learning basic social abilities and normally follow a prescribed treatment plan for bulimia. Secondly, weekly group medication sessions. Usually it is led by a DTB therapist who is trained in the field. Young girls who are normally the participants work together in order to attain improved social support as well as solicitation of DTB techniques. Notably, no DTB component was intended to be used solely. Personal therapy became necessary since it serves a significant role of keeping uncontrolled emotional challenges from destructing group sessions. In a similar manner, group sessions are important since they provide unique skills to DTB as well as offering a chance to practice regulation of emotion among teen girls affected by bulimia condition (Bearman et al., 2003). Therefore, DTB is very essential since it acts as a counseling to adolescent girls who are affected by bulimia. In this way, they gain a clear insight into the situation enabling them to cope with less or no emotions.
Maudsley family-based medication (for adolescents and children) for Bulimia. Wood et al, 1996 mentions that, it is a family treatment of anorexia nervosa which was developed by Christopher Dare with the help of colleagues at Maudsley Hospital, London. According to a study done by Bearman et al., 2003, efficacy of the family grounded medications for teens affected by anorexia nervosa and bulimia is confirmed. Carter & Fairburn, 1998 identifies two stages of medication involved in Maudsley treatment. Normally, this therapy lasts for about a year with 15-20sessions recommended for girls suffering from bulimia. In the initial phase, returning to a good control regarding eating to an adolescent girl is focused. Parents are encouraged to assist their girls to exercise more control over their dieting. It is the role of the guardian at this phase to accept that the key task is to return a teen to right physical health. Though the symptoms remains evident in consultations between family and therapist, weight gain with less tension is encouraged. Additionally, all the general relationship issues in the family are conversed. They include the daily parenting concerns that affects girls, for instance, poor addressing of the teens regarding their bodies making them develop a negative feeling about themselves. Studies have revealed that such challenges affects eating behaviors of a young adolescent girl. Secondly the author talks about developing heathy teenage identity phase. In this stage, it is assumed that a teen is capable of maintaining her weight above 95 percent of the ideal value. Medication focus thus changes into the effect Maudsley treatment has on a young female in establishment of a fit adolescent identity. Carter & Fairburn, 1998 adds, it entails the critical review of key issues of adolescence and also includes supporting improved own autonomy for teenagers and development of suitable parental boundaries. Hence, Maudsley treatment is a therapy that assist adolescent girls to practice healthy behaviors which are important in reduction of bulimia. It entails self-acceptance on both parent and the youngster side.
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