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The first cause in the increasing amounts of refugees around the globe is because of civil war(s) that are currently happening in certain parts of the world and has been taken place over several years. According to Tran (2016) it states that currently the global refugee catastrophe is by far the most serious case since World War Two. There are nearly 60 million people turned into refugees due to the on-going war in Middle East, North Africa and other regions in Asia. The distressing civil war in Syria has produced the largest amounts of refugees with approximately 5 million escaping the country and approximately 7 million internally displaced. And according to Wikipedia (2018) it states that by May 2011, countless people had escaped from the bloody conflicts over to other parts of the world, with many more being displaced within Syria itself. As soldiers tackled several places and battled, whole villages were attempting to flee, with huge amounts of refugees a day crossing over to nearby countries.
Furthermore, according to City of Thorns, for several weeks, a warship fired missiles on the land resulting hundreds of refugees frantically running along the road to Daddab. Refugees who were injured, barely made it into the camps feeling dismayed as majority of them were stripped, robbed and gang-raped by their supposed liberators, to whom they had come looking for protection. Given the statistics, it can clearly be seen there is a significant increase with the numbers of refugees since World War Two. War occurring in a country does have a huge impact on its own people and plays a big role in contributing to the issue. Therefore, if at this stage there is still a civil war happening between two nations, numbers of refugees are only going to increase more within the next few years.
The second cause would be climate changes that have a major effect on the agricultural regions. According to Bello (2018), Climate change has resulted 660, 000 more people seeking asylum each year toward Europe. Temperature rise to an unbearable level or degree in a country may have a major impact on the rest of the world, as citizens who were affected by the climate change within their own country are forced to migrate to other country as there won’t be any crops to produce during times like this. As a result, there will be more asylum seekers in the coming years, people who are affected by the extreme weather changes. And according to Taylor (2017), over millions of citizens will be forced to flee from their hometown by climate change within the next few years, resulting in the greatest refugee crisis the world has ever come across, based on a news report. The report explains that with successive droughts which may be one of the attributes to Syrian war, thus resulting of large number citizens to migrate to other countries as there were no food, water or jobs available.
More other sources that stated the same issue, according to Pellizone (2017), each year certain regions of a country lose some of their productive land due to desertification, leaving people with no choice but to migrate other country. Many families whose livelihood depends subsistence farming and animal breeding were also forced to migrate due to extreme temperatures. And according to city of thorns, in the lands of Somali, there were literally no rain for two and a half years. The nomads and the farmers saw the clouds scudding east from the Indian Ocean over the plains and the hills, but no rain fell. They began to worry as witnessed those animals getting sick and the plantations were mostly covered with dust. Given the statistics, climate change is a huge problem, which needs to be addressed both in terms of land and climate change management, and in terms of international law, because climate or environmental refugees are not protected under international law and often risk being sent back to their countries of origin. Climate changes have an ever more important impact on society, either directly, as floods, hurricanes and other extreme forms of natural disasters, or indirectly, by conflicts over resources such as water, food or cultivable land. Hence, it is most likely to be seen having more refugees living under extreme temperature condition to migrate to other countries for survival.
Finally, third cause would be persecution based on sexual orientation and/or gender identity. As stated by Turnbull & Co (2018), people that is identified as gay or lesbian or falls under the LGBTI category or are involved in same-sex intercourse are subject to imprisonment in over 73 countries and worst-case scenario, getting death penalty based on laws against same-sex relationship and activities. Despite it being legalised at some places or countries, those who identify themselves as gay or other terms end up getting persecuted, receiving death threats, getting corporal punishment, sexual assault, rape etc. Same-sex couples are not allowed to get married and to adopt children.
On top of that, it is a lot harder for them to get jobs and kids who attend school will get judged and discriminated by their peers. Gay refugees who meet the admissibility requirements are eligible for the Canadian resettlement program in Canada under the Private Refugee Sponsorship Program. It is often tougher for LGBTI refugees get receive private sponsorship as times it is not safe for LGBTI asylum seekers to reveal their sexual orientation and/or gender identity in the country of asylum. And according to Bielski (2017), around the world, sexual minorities face terrifying discrimination and threats to their lives. The latest horrific reports have come from Chechyna, where gay men have been put up in pogroms, tortured and killed. Given the statistic, people from all over the world face discrimination and getting sexual assault based off one sexual orientation and/or gender identity. Certain parts of the world or states that are anti same sex orientation or who are homophobic even put on extreme measures in eliminating or torturing those who classify themselves as part of LGBTI community. As a result, terrified gay refugees are forced to leave with the fear of getting persecuted and being unaccepted by their own country.
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