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May 19, 1925 – February 21, 1965
Malcolm X was an African-American Muslim minister and human rights activist who was a prominent figure during the civil rights movement. A spokesman for the Nation of Islam until 1964, he was a vocal advocate for black empowerment and the promotion of Islam within the black community.
Malcolm X was one of the most significant figures within the American Black nationalist movement. Many of the ideas he articulated, like race pride and self-defense, became ideological mainstays of the Black Power movement that emerged in the 1960s and ’70s. He first rose to prominence in the late 1940s, as a member of the Nation of Islam, a religious organization that mixes elements of traditional Islam and Black nationalism. He continued his activism after leaving the Nation.
“You're not to be so blind with patriotism that you can't face reality. Wrong is wrong, no matter who does it or says it.”
“Education is our passport to the future, for tomorrow belongs to the people who prepare for it today.”
“Sometimes you have to pick the gun up to put the Gun down.”
“Usually when people are sad, they don't do anything. They just cry over their condition. But when they get angry, they bring about a change.”
1. Tuck, S. (2013). Malcolm X's Visit to Oxford University: US Civil Rights, Black Britain, and the Special Relationship on Race. The American Historical Review, 118(1), 76-103. (https://academic.oup.com/ahr/article/118/1/76/46516)
2. Epps, A. C. (1993). The rhetoric of Malcolm X. Harvard Review, (3), 64-75. (https://www.jstor.org/stable/27559632)
3. Davis, D. W., & Davenport, C. (1997). The political and social relevancy of Malcolm X: The stability of African American political attitudes. The Journal of Politics, 59(2), 550-564. (https://www.journals.uchicago.edu/doi/abs/10.1017/S0022381600053573)
4. Branham, R. J. (1995). “I Was Gone on Debating”: Malcolm x's Prison Debates and Public Confrontations. Argumentation and Advocacy, 31(3), 117-137. (https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/00028533.1995.11951606)
5. Harris, F. C. (2015). The next civil rights movement?. Dissent, 62(3), 34-40. (https://muse.jhu.edu/pub/56/article/585788/summary)
6. Jeffries, J. L. (2023). Only the Ques Would Debate Malcolm X: the Civil Rights Movement’s Big Six and the Safe Distance at Which They Kept America’s Foremost Militant. Journal of African American Studies, 1-23. (https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s12111-022-09599-x)
7. Street, J. (2008). Malcolm X, Smethwick, and the influence of the African American freedom struggle on British race relations in the 1960s. Journal of Black Studies, 38(6), 932-950. (https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/0021934706291192?journalCode=jbsa)
8. Hafez, F. (2017). From Harlem to the “Hoamatlond”: Hip-Hop, Malcolm X, and Muslim Activism in Austria. Journal of Austrian-American History, 1(2), 159-180. (https://scholarlypublishingcollective.org/psup/austrian-american-history/article/1/2/159/201115/From-Harlem-to-the-Hoamatlond-Hip-Hop-Malcolm-X)
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