close
This essay has been submitted by a student. This is not an example of the work written by professional essay writers.

The Place of Environmental Determinism in Racism Behaviour

downloadDownload printPrint

Remember! This is just a sample.

You can get your custom paper by one of our expert writers.

Get custom essay

121 writers online

blank-ico

Environmental determinism, or the thinking that the environment (including geography and climate) determines the persona and attributes of cultural and ethnic groups, was once traditionally used to justify Western colonization. In the article below, Matthew Kearnes reviews the principle of ‘environmental determinism’ through a discussion of two well-known, twentieth-century texts. Specifically, he explores how racism is entangled with these determinist narratives.

A mainly sturdy lineage that runs through the development of modernist environmental questioning is the concept of environmental determinism “the large claim that environmental stipulations decide the personality and attributes of (geographically distinct) cultural and ethnic groups”. While this deeply frustrating principle has enjoyed a degree of forex in the course of Western philosophical and cultural history, it was once in particular evident in the early part of the twentieth century, shaping the development of the cutting-edge disciplines of region studies, anthropology, geography, and environmental studies.

Civilization and Climate, a ordinary textual content of this technology by using Ellsworth Huntington, is a mainly striking instance of this style of environmental thinking. First posted in 1915 (and reprinted at least ten times), Huntington’s textual content opens with possibly the clearest expression of environmental and climatic determinism, arguing that “the races of the earth are like trees. Each in accordance to its sort brings forth the fruit regarded as a civilization”.

Huntington’s race idea is clear from the start. If special races can be individual by the sophistication of their culture and civilization, it is a quick step for Huntington to pose his central principle that climatic stipulations impact the cultural sophistication of unique racial and ethnic groups. Perhaps predictably, racial groups residing in temperate climates appear as a substitute positively in Huntington’s account, while in comparison the “denizens of the torrid region are slow and backward, and we almost universally agree that this is linked with the damp, steady heat”.  

Huntington’s climatic determinism is of route a thin veil for a virulent structure of Euro-centric racism. It is necessary to notice that Huntington’s theories of racial superiority are an expression of the emergence of fascist political movements in Europe and America (Huntington was once a noted supporter of eugenics and wrote sympathetically about Hitler and the onset of German National Socialism). They factor to a broader geopolitical discourse of Western colonialism that, in the phrases of Denis Cosgrove, “sought to base political and army approach on what was once viewed as enduring patterns of lands, seas, climates, and resources throughout the terrestrial sphere”. Huntington’s specific mode of reasoning, which seeks to set up the causal relations between environment and civilization, is by way of no skill unique to the disciplines of geography and environmental science. The organic method of selection brought on this diploma of freedom. To Smuts, the idea is an organ of wholes with the capability to arrange a social self and social environment, and an ability that consequences in “different ranges of culture” relying on the “level of intellectual way of life and the holistic urge”.

In the same way that Huntington’s explicitly racist principle of surroundings sought to establish causal relations between local weather and cultural sophistication and expression, in Smut’s ecological imaginative and prescient the entirety (both human and nonhuman) has a unique vicinity in a higher whole. The threat for Smuts used to be when this order was once disrupted, which brought on the initiatives of environmental conservation and racial segregation. In the words of Anker again, ecophilosophy served him as a glorification of white supremacy, with a division of society into excessive and low personalities, whilst nonetheless defending unification of South Africa, the British Empire, and eventually the world thru the League of Nations.

One way of reading these connections is simply that they are an expression of the co-joined histories of colonialism and the contemporary environmental sciences. Might we conclude that the theories of environmental and climatic determinism without a doubt sat alongside the colonial ride however did now not add materially to it? Or might we locate some comfort in the suggestion that the explicitly racist connotations of each theories had been clearly a by-product of the private predilections of their chief proponents? Surely this mode of wondering isn’t evident in current environmental politics and practice?

To summarize, of course, in reality, the argument that the colonial race theory, ecological holism, and environmental determinism have been truely accidental bedfellows is a profound misreading of entangled histories of these projects. Several present day pupils have begun to pick out what we may suppose of as a “climatic determinism” in the public dialogue of international warming and climate change. This determinism is characterized by way of pix of climate-induced warfare, conflict, and migration.

Remember: This is just a sample from a fellow student.

Your time is important. Let us write you an essay from scratch

experts 450+ experts on 30 subjects ready to help you just now

delivery Starting from 3 hours delivery

Find Free Essays

We provide you with original essay samples, perfect formatting and styling

Cite this Essay

To export a reference to this article please select a referencing style below:

The Place of Environmental Determinism in Racism Behaviour. (2022, August 30). GradesFixer. Retrieved September 22, 2022, from https://gradesfixer.com/free-essay-examples/the-place-of-environmental-determinism-in-racism-behaviour/
“The Place of Environmental Determinism in Racism Behaviour.” GradesFixer, 30 Aug. 2022, gradesfixer.com/free-essay-examples/the-place-of-environmental-determinism-in-racism-behaviour/
The Place of Environmental Determinism in Racism Behaviour. [online]. Available at: <https://gradesfixer.com/free-essay-examples/the-place-of-environmental-determinism-in-racism-behaviour/> [Accessed 22 Sept. 2022].
The Place of Environmental Determinism in Racism Behaviour [Internet]. GradesFixer. 2022 Aug 30 [cited 2022 Sept 22]. Available from: https://gradesfixer.com/free-essay-examples/the-place-of-environmental-determinism-in-racism-behaviour/
copy to clipboard
close

Where do you want us to send this sample?

    By clicking “Continue”, you agree to our terms of service and privacy policy.

    close

    Be careful. This essay is not unique

    This essay was donated by a student and is likely to have been used and submitted before

    Download this Sample

    Free samples may contain mistakes and not unique parts

    close

    Sorry, we could not paraphrase this essay. Our professional writers can rewrite it and get you a unique paper.

    close

    Thanks!

    Please check your inbox.

    We can write you a custom essay that will follow your exact instructions and meet the deadlines. Let's fix your grades together!

    boy

    Hi there!

    Are you interested in getting a customized paper?

    Check it out!
    Don't use plagiarized sources. Get your custom essay. Get custom paper
    exit-popup-close

    Haven't found the right essay?

    Get an expert to write you the one you need!

    exit-popup-print

    Professional writers and researchers

    exit-popup-quotes

    Sources and citation are provided

    exit-popup-clock

    3 hour delivery

    exit-popup-persone