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The Role of Rubrics in Advanced Teaching and Learning Process

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A rubric is a multi-purpose scoring guide for assessing student products and process. It is an assessment tool in matrix form. Assessment matrix covers all the key parameters for the assessment of each phase. This tool works in many ways to advance student learning and has great potential in particular for non-traditional, first generation and underground students. In addition, rubrics improve teaching-learning process, contribute to complete assessment and are an important source of information for program improvement.

The outcome of each phase of Outcome-Based Education (OBE) is assessed by the evaluation team and the guide using the assessment matrix which is based on assessment rubrics. In this paper, we discuss key features of a quality rubric, types of rubrics, present an example of a rubric for assessing a programming study in computer domain and describe three basic steps in designing an effective rubric.

While school educators and their students have long seen the value of rubrics valuation, our experience in working with faculty is that rubrics have been largely ignored in higher education environments. These multi-purpose scoring directors for assessing student products and process performances work in a number of different ways to advance the goals of an educational program.

The Outcome-Based Education (OBE) is an education system that emphasis on outcomes extent rather than inputs of the curriculum covered. Outcomes may include a range of knowledge, hands-on skills, and approaches. In order to obtain the estimated outcomes, teaching components and undertakings should be well organized, planned and continuously improved. We adopted OBE in our curriculum and for the course, we have written course learning objectives (CLO) i.e. after the completion of the course the student should be able to satisfy these objectives and they are mapped with the program outcomes (PO). Purpose of the rubric is well explained. Purpose of Rubrics Formation Benefits of Rubrics: Sr No.

Benefits of Rubrics

  1. Reduces time and efforts in assessment
  2. More emphasis is on outcomes
  3. Brings objectivity and transparency
  4. Can be standoardized across the institution for the same type of ability
  5. Can be used as self-assessment and peer assessment tools
  6. Accessing the student’s work efficient, reliable, objective and quick
  7. Provide problem-solving formative feedback which helps in student improvement
  8. Rubrics make the learning target more clearly this paper we describe a rubric that has developed to assess programming study in the computer.

A set of criteria have been documented and classified. We have chosen the criteria as per requirements from our faculty members and corporates we have interacted with and based on an analysis of literature in [1], [3], [5] and [7]. The criteria chosen have a direct or indirect impact on the students’ learning experience. A “Weight” factor is assigned to each criterion and is mentioned against each criterion. We have provided a sample value for the weight but this can be modified as per the needs of the organization. The rating assigned is based on the five points with emphasis on both the positive and negative. Elements of a Rubric: Typically designed as a matrix, a grading rubric includes criteria, levels of performance, scores, and descriptors which become unique assessment tools for any given assignment as shown in figure 1.2.

Figure 1.2: Elements of RubricWhen developing a rubric, starts with a task description which is the actual assignment or performance.

Task Example: Construct a Computer Application using programming concepts. Criteria identify the mannerism, feature or dimension which is to be measured and include a description and example to clarify the meaning of each trait being assessed. Each assignment or performance will determine the number of criteria to be scored. Criteria are derived from assignments, checklists, grading sheets or associates

Debug Perform Input Validation Produce Readable Program. Levels of performance determine the degree of performance which has been met and will provide for the reliable and unbiased assessment and better feedback to students. These levels express students what they are expected to do. Levels of performance can be used without use of descriptors but descriptors help in achieving objectivity. Words used for levels of performance could affect a student’s interpretation of performance level such as superior, moderate, poor or above or below average.

Levels of performance example: Excellent, Good, Fair, Poor Complete, Incomplete Yes, No Master, Apprentice, Beginner Exemplary, Accomplished, Developing, Beginning, Undeveloped

Scores are numbers or values used to rate each criterion and often are combined with levels of performance. Begin by asking how many points are required to effectively define the range of performance you expect to see in student’s work. Consider the range of possible performance level.

Descriptors are explicit descriptions of the performance. It shows how the score is derived and what is anticipated by the students. Descriptors spell out each gradation level of performance for each criterion and describe what performance at a particular level looks like. Descriptors describe how well students work is well-known from the work of their peers and will help you to differentiate between each student work. Finally, the same descriptors can be used for different criteria within one rubric.

For example, the three level of performance: Excellent, Good, Fair and Poor can be used for the separate criteria of Data type, Control Structure, Debug & Perform Input Validation. Descriptors should be complete enough to distinguish all level and increase the objectivity of the rater.

Types of Rubrics

Defining which type of rubric to use is subject to on what and how you plan to evaluate. There are numerous types of rubrics including holistic, analytical, general, and task-specific [1].

Details are as follows:

A. Holistic: In this type of rubric all criteria are assessed as a single score. These rubrics are good for evaluating overall performance on a task quickly. Holistic rubrics tend to be easier to score as only one score is given. However, it does not provide thorough information on student performance for each criterion; the levels of performance are treated as a whole.

These rubrics:

  • Usage for simple tasks and performances such as reading ease or response to an essay question.
  • Receiving an instant snapshot of complete quality or achievement.
  • Judging the effect of a product or performance.

B. Analytical: In this type of rubric each criterion is assessed individually, using different descriptive ratings. Each criterion obtains a separate score. This type of rubrics takes more time to score but provide more detailed feedback.

These rubrics:

  • Judging complex performances – relating several major criteria.
  • Providing more precise information or feedback to students.This type of rubric contains criteria that are all across tasks and can be used for related tasks or performances. Criteria are assessed separately, same as in an analytical rubric.

These Rubrics:

  • Useful when students will not all be doing exactly a similar task when students have a choice as to what proof will be chosen to show competency on a particular skill or product.
  • Useful when teachers are trying to judge consistently in different course sections.

D. Task-specific: This type of rubric assesses a specific task. Unique criteria are assessed distinctly. However, it may not be promising to account for each and every criterion involved in a particular task which could overlook a student’s unique solution

These Rubrics:

  • Easier and faster to get reliable scoring
  • Useful in large-scale and “high-stakes” environments, such as state-level accountability assessments.
  • Useful when you want to know whether students recognize particular facts, equations, methods or procedures.


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The Role of Rubrics in Advanced Teaching. (2018, October 26). GradesFixer. Retrieved May 22, 2022, from
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