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The types of diabetes

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Diabetes is a lifelong condition that causes a person’s blood sugar level to become too high. There are two main types of diabetes which are type 1 and type 2.

Type 1 is where the body’s immune system attacks and destroys the cells that produce insulin whereas, type 2 is where the body doesn’t produce enough insulin. The amount of sugar in the blood is controlled by a hormone called insulin, which is produced by the pancreas.

When food is digested and enters your bloodstream, insulin moves glucose out of the blood and into cells, where it’s broken down to produce energy. However, if you have diabetes, your body is unable to break down glucose into energy. This is because there’s either not enough insulin to move the glucose, or the insulin produced doesn’t work properly.

Although there are no lifestyle changes you can make to lower your risk of type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes is often linked to being overweight. People diagnosed with type 1 diabetes also require regular insulin injections for the rest of their life. As type 2 diabetes is a progressive condition, medication may eventually be required, usually in the form of tablets. The following tests are used for the diagnosis of diabetes:

  • A fasting plasma glucose test measures your blood glucose after you have gone at least 8 hours without eating.
  • An oral glucose tolerance test measures your blood sugar after you have gone at least eight hours without eating and two hours after you drink a glucose-containing beverage
  • A random plasma glucose test, your doctor checks your blood sugar without regard to when you ate your last meal. This test, along with an assessment of symptoms Positive test results should be confirmed by repeating the fasting plasma glucose test or the oral glucose tolerance test on a different day. This blood test — along with other information and test results – can help determine if a person has type 1 diabetes and not another type.

The cost of issuing medicine for diabetes to Scottish patients reached almost £90 million last year, the increasing cost to the health service came as more than 3.5 million prescriptions were given out. Scotland prescribing figures showed the cost of issuing diabetes drugs was £88.97 million in 2015/16. There are numerous causes of both types of diabetes, experts have repeatedly warned many people would avoid the illness by eating more healthily and being more active. Currently over 3 million people in the UK have with diabetes, the majority of which is type 2. The global diabetes rate is expected to grow to 552 million by 2030 World Diabetes Day is on November 14th every year.

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