Theory of Motivational: Context and Process Theories

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About this sample


Words: 2206 |

Pages: 5|

12 min read

Published: Aug 1, 2022

Words: 2206|Pages: 5|12 min read

Published: Aug 1, 2022

Table of contents

  1. Context Theories
  2. Maslow's hierarchy of needs
    Alderfer's ERG Theory
    Motivator-Hygiene Theory
    McClelland's Learned Needs Theory
  3. Process Theories
  4. Expectancy Theory
    Equity Theory
    Goal-Setting Theory
    Reinforcement Theory

Motivational theory is tasked with discovering what drives individuals to work towards a goal or outcome. Businesses are interested in motivational theory because motivated individuals are more productive, leading to more economic use of resources.

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Most motivational theories differentiate between intrinsic and extrinsic factors: the former are concerned with an individual's interest, enjoyment, and willingness to partake in an activity. People with higher self-confidence and beliefs that their own abilities will lead to success are more likely to have high levels of intrinsic motivation. Extrinsic motivations focus on the outcome of the activity i.e. individuals are driven by the outcome rather than the activity itself.

Context Theories

Content (or need) theory of motivation centers around factors inside to the person that empowers and direct conduct. As a rule, such theory sees motivation as the result of inside drives that constrain a person to act or move (henceforth, 'persuade') close as per the general inclination of individual needs. The content theory of motivation is situated in huge part on early speculations of motivation that followed the ways of acting in reverse to their apparent root in inside drives. Significant content theories of motivation are Maslow's hierarchy of needs, Alderfer's ERG theory, Herzberg's motivator-hygiene theory, and McClelland's learned needs or three-needs theory.

Maslow's hierarchy of needs

Abraham Maslow built up the progressive system of necessities, which proposes that individual needs exist in a chain of command comprising of physiological needs, security needs, belongingness needs, regard needs, and self-completion needs. Physiological needs are the most fundamental requirements for nourishment, water, and different factors vital for endurance. Security needs to remember requirements for well-being for one's physical condition, dependability, and opportunity from passionate misery. Belongingness needs to identify with wants for kinship, love, and acknowledgment inside a given network of people.

Regard needs are those related with acquiring regard of one's self as well as other people. At last, self-completion needs are those relating to the accomplishment of one's own potential, to the practicing and testing of one's inventive limits, and, when all is said in done, to turning into the best individual one can be. Unsatisfied needs persuade conduct; along these lines, lower-level needs, for example, the physiological and security needs should be met before upper-level needs, for example, belongingness, regard, and self-realization can be inspirational.

Honda uses Maslow’s theory to build a perfect product. Maslow’s theory simply suggests that we all need to cover our basic needs (food, shelter, safety and security, love and self-actualization and spiritual needs – in that order) before luxury. Honda uses this theory with its vehicle; using safety to make the owners feel safe, social status to instill feeling ofhigh class and self-esteem via marketing strategy to make Honda owners feel confident because they own a Honda. The also use a sense of success unto the owners. They want owners to feel that they are successful “in their own rights”; meaning if you own what you deserve, you will be extremely satisfied. Maslow’s theory is very powerful and can be seen with Honda products and advertising and their target demographics are on lock because of this.

Alderfer's ERG Theory

The ERG theory is an augmentation of Maslow's hierarchy of needs. Alderfer proposed that requirements could be arranged into three classifications, as opposed to five. These three kinds of requirements are existence, relatedness, and growth. Existence needs are like Maslow's physiological and security need classifications. Relatedness needs include relational connections and are tantamount to parts of Maslow's belongingness and regarding needs. Growth needs are those identified with the achievement of one's potential and are related with Maslow's regard and self-completion needs.

The ERG theory varies from the chain of command of requirements in that it doesn't recommend that lower-level needs should be totally fulfilled before upper-level needs become persuasive. ERG theory likewise recommends that if an individual is consistently unfit to meet upper-level needs that the individual will relapse and lower-level needs become the significant determinants of their inspiration. ERG hypothesis' suggestions for supervisors are like those for the necessities chain of command: administrators should concentrate on meeting representatives' presence, relatedness, and development needs, however without fundamentally applying the arrangement that activity wellbeing concerns essentially overshadow testing and satisfying employment prerequisites.

Motivator-Hygiene Theory

Frederick Herzberg built up the motivator-hygiene theory. This theory is firmly identified with Maslow's hierarchy of needs of requirements however relates all the more explicitly to how people are roused in the workplace. In view of his exploration, Herzberg contended that gathering the lower-level needs (hygiene factors) of people would not spur them to apply exertion, however, would just keep them from being disappointed. Just if more significant level needs (motivator) were met would people be spurred.

The suggestion for directors of the motivator-hygiene theory is that gathering representative lower-level needs by improving compensation, advantages, security, and other occupation-relevant variables will keep workers from getting effectively disappointed however won't spur them to apply extra exertion toward better execution. To persuade laborers, as indicated by the theory, administrators must concentrate on changing the inborn nature and substance of occupations themselves by 'enhancing' them to expand workers' self-governance and their chances to assume on extra liability, gain acknowledgment, and build up their aptitudes and professions.

When Honda applies this to their association, it diminishes work disappointment union by guaranteeing forceful pay rates and business soundness and giving open doors for movement, and give more accountabilities to rouse them it additionally helps affiliation directors in watching pro's fulfillment as a genuine segment of work and it will build worker fulfillment

McClelland's Learned Needs Theory

McClelland's theory proposes that people gain needs from their way of life. Three of the essential needs in this theory are the need for alliance (n Aff), the need for power (n Pow), and the need for achievement (n Ach). The need for the alliance is a craving to build up a social relationship with others. The need for power mirrors a craving to control one's condition and impact others. The need for achievement is a longing to assume liability, set testing objectives, and acquire execution criticism.

The central matter of the adapted needs theory is that when one of these requirements is solid in an individual, it can possibly spur conduct that prompts its fulfillment. Consequently, directors should endeavor to build up a comprehension of whether and to what degree their representatives have at least one of these necessities and the degree to which their employments can be organized to fulfill them.

Process Theories

Process theories of motivation center around cognizant human choice procedures as a clarification of motivation. The process theories are worried about deciding how singular conduct is stimulated, coordinated, and kept up in the explicitly willed and self-coordinated human subjective procedures. Process theories of inspiration depend on early psychological speculations, which set that conduct is the consequence of cognizant basic leadership forms. The significant process theories of motivation are expectancy theory, equity theory, goal-setting theory, and reinforcement theory.

Expectancy Theory

Victor Vroom applied ideas of social research led during the 1930s by Kurt Lewin and Edward Tolman straightforwardly to work motivation. Essentially, Vroom recommended that people pick work practices that they accept lead to results they esteem. In choosing how a lot of exertion to place into work conduct, people are probably going to consider:

  • Their expectancy, which means how much they accept that advancing exertion will prompt a given degree of performance
  • Their instrumentality, or how much they accept that a given degree of execution will bring about specific results or rewards
  • Their valence, which is the degree to which the normal results are alluring or unattractive

Each of the three of these elements is relied upon to impact motivation in a multiplicative manner so that for a person to be profoundly energetic, every one of the three of parts of the expectancy model must be high. Also, if even one of these is zero (e.g., instrumentality and valence are high, however, expectancy is totally missing), the individual will have no motivation for the errand. In this way, chiefs should endeavor, to the degree conceivable, to guarantee that their workers accept that expanded exertion will improve execution and that presentation will prompt esteemed prizes.

Equity Theory

Equity theory recommends that people take part in social examination by contrasting their endeavors and remunerates and those of pertinent others. The impression of people about the decency of their prizes compared with others impacts their degree of inspiration. Equity exists when people see that the proportion of endeavors to rewards is the equivalent for them for what it's worth for others to whom they think about themselves. Inequity exists when people see that the proportion of endeavors to rewards is unique (normally contrarily so) for them than it is for others to whom they look at themselves.

There are two sorts of inequity—under-reward and over-reward. Under-reward happens when an individual accepts that the person either places in a greater number of endeavors than another, yet gets a similar reward or places in a similar exertion as another for a lesser reward. For example, if a worker works longer hours than her associate, yet gets a similar compensation, the representative would see disparity as under-remunerate.

Then again, with over-reward, an individual will feel that his endeavors to-rewards proportion is higher than another person's, to such an extent that he is getting more for placing in a similar exertion or getting a similar reward even with less exertion. While looking into recommends that under-compensate propels people to determine the imbalance, inquiring about likewise demonstrates that the equivalent isn't valid for over-remunerate. People who are over-compensated regularly take part in subjective discord, persuading themselves that their endeavors and rewards are equivalent to another's.

Goal-Setting Theory

The goal-setting theory sets that objectives are the most significant variables influencing the inspiration and conduct of representatives. This motivation theory was grown essentially by Edwin Locke and Gary Latham. Goal-setting theory underscores the significance of explicit and testing objectives in accomplishing inspired conduct. Explicit objectives regularly include quantitative focuses for development in the conduct of intrigue.

Research shows that particular execution objectives are substantially more compelling than those in which an individual is basically advised to put forth a valiant effort. Challenging objectives are troublesome however not difficult to accomplish. Observational inquiry about underpins the suggestion that objectives that are both explicit and testing are more persuasive than ambiguous objectives or objectives that are generally simple to accomplish.

A few variables may direct the connection between explicit and challenging goals and elevated levels of inspiration. The first of these variables is goal commitment, which implies that the more committed the individual is to accomplish the objective, the more they will be roused to apply exertion toward objective achievement. Research recommends that having representatives partake in the objective setting will build their degree of objective responsibility. A second factor pertinent to goal-setting theory is self-efficacy, which is the person's conviction that the person can effectively finish a specific task. On the off chance that people have a high level of self-viability, they are probably going to react more emphatically to explicit and testing objectives than if they have a low level of self-adequacy.

Reinforcement Theory

This theory can be followed to crafted by the spearheading behaviorist B.F. Skinner. It is viewed as a motivation theory just as a learning theory. Reinforcement theory places that propelled conduct happens because of reinforcers, which are results coming about because of the conduct that makes it almost certain the conduct will happen once more. This theory recommends that it isn't important to contemplate needs or subjective procedures to get inspiration, however, it is just important to analyze the results of conduct.

Conduct that is fortified is probably going to proceed, yet conduct that isn't remunerated or conduct that is rebuffed isn't probably going to be rehashed. Reinforcement theory recommends to supervisors that they can improve workers' presentation by a procedure of conduct adjustment wherein they strengthen wanted practices and rebuff undesired practices.

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Following are the methods for controlling the behavior of the employees −

  • Positive Reinforcement − Positive reinforcement clarifies that, when a worker gives positive and necessary conduct, the reaction towards them should be certain. This invigorates the event of conduct. Reward to a representative who performs well fortifies his/her longing to perform better in view of the positive aftereffects of doing as such. Honda Company always encourages their employees' behavior and performance through a system of praise and rewards.
  • Negative Reinforcement −Negative reinforcement happens when certain deterrent(s) or obstruction(s) is expelled and the employee(s) reacts to ideal conduct after such expulsion. For example, a worker who drives from a long separation wraps up a couple of undertakings quicker than wanted; in any case, when he is advised by the administrator to take the ventures home for a few days and complete them, it animates him/her to function true to form. By evacuating the negative improvements, the ideal conduct is fortified.
  • Punishment − Punishment alludes to forcing negative outcomes or expelling positive results with the end goal of averting employees from rehashing unwanted and uncalled-for practices. It can, in this way, be both positive and negative. For example, Honda Company cut in the wages of an employee who misses work. The loss of income constitutes the punishment for missing work.
  • Extinction − Extinction alludes to stifling educated conduct by retaining uplifting feedback or reward that has empowered the conduct.
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Theory of Motivational: Context and Process Theories. (2022, August 01). GradesFixer. Retrieved December 3, 2023, from
“Theory of Motivational: Context and Process Theories.” GradesFixer, 01 Aug. 2022,
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