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Therapeutics Role of Azadirachta Indica (neem) and Their Active Constituents in Diseases Prevention and Treatment

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Plant extracts used for research purpose are Azadirachta indica which is its botanical name and commonly well known as “Neem” belongs to family Meliaceae. Its Chemical constituents are Nimbin, Nimbidin, Nimbidol.It provides repellent, anti hormonal, analgesic, anti feedant, anti bacterial, anti inflammatory, antipyretic, antifungal properties. The Biological beneficial characteristics of this plant are Detoxifying agent, Reducing acne, digestive health benefits, preventing dandruff, oral health benefits. It helps in treating malaria and fever and curing allergic skin reaction. The leaves of Acacia nilotica is used popular as Babul or “kikar” a member of acacia family. Chemical constituents of Acacia is rich in protein, Tannins is present in large amount that have high fibre contents artificially. It is used to treat cancer, appetite suppresent to stop obesity and cure diarrhea. Indian barberry generally named as “Sumbloo” and Botanical name is Berberis aristata DC. It is anti cancer, anti diabetic and antiarthyritis. Biological characters: It is beneficial for the treatment of mouth and throat infections. The Powder of Sumbloo Root is good for healing cancer patients, Brain tumor, cancerous sore, mouth disease, tooth ache, neck pain, thyroid glands, Chronic wounds, diabetes, arthiritis, infertility, broken bones, jaundice, cramps and diarrhea. Senna alexandrina belongs to Fabaceae family and commonly called as “Senna makki” it is used to cure skin infection and diseases, used as cathartic and laxative and treat constipation

The remedy and therapy for diseases like stroke, cancer, tumor ,diabetes, atherosclerosis and Alzheimer’s disease , drug based on antioxident are used. Reported earlier that they have multiplex biological effects, Polyphenolic compounds are present in both plants either inedible or edible. In many field of study like dyeing, nutrition, makeup products, beverages, drugs, aroma, repellents, add flavouring, and herbs antioxidant activity is included. Many species have been reported to have useful effect on health like antioxidant, antimicrobial, hypolipidemic, digestive stimulation action, antimutagenic, anticarcinogenic, anti-inflammatory and therapeutic properties.

The ABTS radical scaveinging activity of different samples was studied by Re et al. (1999). DPPH was explicate by Brands Willaim et al. Fecl3 was explained by Berker rt al. (2007). ABTS or 2,2′-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) observed kinetic reactions using specific enzymes.it is a notable substrate to measure thetotal antioxidant. One electron antioxidant is involved to prevent the formation of ABTS. DPPH or 1-1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazl radical comprise of powder form having darker colour and a substancial free radical. DPPH is a well liked antioxidant assay. DPPH assay is performed when DPPH reduction in methanol solution. FRAP based on the reduction of ferric tripyridyl triazine complex to ferrous ion formation. It transformed from colourless to dark blue color.

Antioxidants are that compounds in body which protect the cells against free radicals or ROS reactive oxygen cell. They are designed like normal metabolic functions of the body, free radicals can be interfere with their ability to perform and is reacted with other cells. It has recognized the oxygen and activity of free radicals in the focalization of human in aging, atherosclerosis and cancer like diseases. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) reacted free radicals with molecular oxygen. The Reactive oxygen specie comprised of hydroxyl radicals superoxide anions and hydrogen peroxide. Due to free radical activity natural antioxidants that are plant phenolics occur in, fruits, vegetables, bark, seeds and leaves, they are used to keep safe from biological damage and to inhibit peroxidation. From diseases like cancer and atherosclerosis to wrinkles free radicals play an important role in different health problems. The antioxidant compounds in Azadirachta indica and their effects on animals diagnosed with cancers describe by universities of the world in ongoing research. A study reported in the LifeSciences depicts that antioxidant compounds in Azadirachta indica prevent brain damage in the rats who had been suffered a stroke by increasing ascorbic acid (Vitamin C) and by increasing lipid peroxidation in the brain. Rats treated before with Azadirachta indica may be a complete standard tests.

The modern system of medicine has more than 25 percent of plant based drugs. Several tree have various medicinal properties, it has been disregard by modern and indigenous system of medicine. Among them Azadirachta indica belonging to family Meliaceae play an essential role due to its medicinal value in many indigenous communities. Recently there has been more interest in the therapeutic potential of medicinal plants as antioxidants. Two medicinal tree species belonging to family Meliaceae has been selected from plant source to evaluate antioxidant potential. All four leaves type were dried and extracted with different solvent systems namely N-Hexane, Ethyl acetate, ethanol, Choloroform & Water. Six extracts of DPPH radical scavenging an assay of antioxidant activity is reported from two genus of the family Meliaceae & there is a need for comparison of the free radical scavenging ability of the extracts. For centuries, agents derived from natural sources (mother nature), especially plants have been the primary source of medicine. Azadirachta indica also commonly named as ‘NEEM’ is one such plant that has provides cure from all diseases, and used in Indian and African continents from many years. Different plant’s part that is flowers, leaves, seeds and bark have been used to treat human diseases of both types acute and chronic. It is used as antibacterial, insecticide; antiviral, antimicrobial, larvicidal, antimalarial.

The molecular bases of various diseases including inflammation, cardiovascular diseases and cancer are known to involve oxidative stress caused by free radicals.

Currently, significant research for natural antioxidants, especially for their protective effect averse of biological damages due to free radicals. Azadirachta indica, Siamese neem, and A. Juss var or tree is a evergreen tree which belongs to the family Meliaceae. Mostly this plant is present in everywhere in Thailand and has been used as conventional treatment in many ways. The flowers are used as refresher, and cure diseases like fever and nasal polyposis. Its stem bark is used for the treatment of diarrhea and ameobic dysentery. Along with flowers, leaves are also used as element tonic, to enhance intestinal secretion, for treatment of pyrexia and used as insecticide. In addition to this, in Thailand, the new flowers and leaves of Siamese neem are eaten up as a cooked vegetable usually. Tree of Siamese neem has been evaluated for antioxidant activity and it might contribute to antioxidant activity at great level. This plant shows activity of free radical scavenging averse of the radicals of DPPH and ABTS and can also stop lipid peroxidation of cell line named Chago K-1 generated by Ulta Violet radiation. These mentioned reports advised that tree of Siamese neem can be used as health food. So, the aim of this research was to investigate the antioxidant property of the aqueous extracts of Siamese neem leaves from various extracting and drying methods comprise of filteration, spray drying and freeze drying.

Acacia nilotica commonly known as”keekar” family is Fabaceae-Mimosoideae. The division and class is Magnolophyta and Magnolipsida respectively. This plant was used to treated infections like fever, congestion hemorrhoids, gallbladder, hemorrhage, colds, small pox and ophthalmic. The bark of Acacia is used for intestinal pains and treating acute diarrhea. Other conditions are syphilitic ulcers, toothache and ophthalmic. Acacia roots are used to treat tuberculosis. This study accomplished activities of ethanol extract of A. nilotica like antioxidant (DPPH assay) antigiardial activity (Giardia lamblia) and performed cytotoxicity through MTT assay.

Medicinal plants are vital source of natural resources that is safe to use, not much toxic, cheap, accessible, convenient and reliable drugs present in the whole world. Sudan have used conventional herbal methods to treat their people and make enquiries about the potential of local plants against diseases by this way. Acacia is known as “garad” in Sudan. The plant have mimosa-like flowers yellow in colour and lengthy grey pods tighten between seeds. They have dark bark and branches. They have hairy leaves. The flower is grown on plant between November and March. Acute diarrhea is being treated by the powdered bark of the plant with less salt.

Modern scientific developments possess pharmacologic activities and economic feasiability. Plants with chemical compounds are sweet scented, spicy and medicative showing antioxidant properties. Antitumor, antibacterial, antiviral activities, anti‐ inflammatory, or anticarcinogenic, are exhibited by antioxident compounds. Crude extracts of vegetables herbs, fruits, and other plant materials rich in phenolic rich plant materials are increasing in the food industry because they decelerate oxidative degradation of lipids and improve the nutritional value and quality of food.

Acacia nilotica is distributed in tropical and subtropical countries at a great extent. Ayurvedic a natural medicine contribute in self healing and good health, A. Nilotica can provide the nutrients and therapeutic ingredients to stop, lessen or treat many diseases or certain conditions. Flowers, leaves and bark are used to treat tumor, cold and cough, congestion, cancer, diarrhea, constipation dysentery, fever, gall bladder, hemorrhoid, ophthalmia, sclerosis, small pox, tuberculosis, leprosy, leucoderma and menstrual problems.

Berberis aristata, is also known as Indian barberry, commonly “chutro” or tree turmeric used to treat cuts and burns, belongs to Berberidaceae family and the genus is Berberis. It produces juicy and acidic berries which are usually taken as a refreshing and energizing fruit. The shrub is specified to Nepal and Himalayas in India and plant is present in Bhutan and Sri Lanka as well along with India and Nepal hilly areas. Indian barberry has been used as Ayurvedic drug. It has different antimicrobial properties (antifungal, antibacterial, anti cancer, antioxident). Indian barberry is used as a healing process to different infections of eye, skin and inflammation, fever, ulcer, lesion, injury, dysentary etc. It also prohibits the conditions such as jaundice, heart failure, malaria fever and disease of liver. Berberis aristata is used internally and externally of both ways. The researchers had reported that B. aristata has anti-inflammatory properties that stops inflammatory receptor and prevent mediators in macrophages which are active. Macrophages, which are active and persistant inflammation, which is chronic plays a essential role in pathological process. It is used to cure the inflammation successfully. The effectual treatment for this is known as Berberine and Berberol that introduce an insulin therapy for diabetes patients with minimal control of glycemic. Antidiarrheal, antispasmodic and antimalarial type activities are also useful in the herbal formations that have biodynamic composition. They have major antitumor and cancer treatment. Roots used to treat fevers, ulcers, jaundice etc. Its leaves are used to be chewed for teeth that is affected for almost 10-15 minutes.

The trees of Barberry that have different parts are used as natural antioxidant and its extraction are very expensive and long process. This plant is a shrub having leaves of oval shaped, 3 m height, sharp, with yellow wood and flowers bearing red fruits. An important medicinal plant also referred as ‘daruharidra’, mainly found in the Himalayas but occur in other parts of the world. For the curing of skin diseases and jaundice ‘Rashut’ an ayurvedic is produced. This plant is an essential drug for the treatment for liver and heart patients, fever and stress causes and laxative for younger age. It has been reported that berberine shows inhibition of enzyme, local anesthetic and antipyretic activities. At present the clinical uses of berberine are diarrhea, parasite infections of intestine, and infection of ocular trachoma.

Senna Alexandrina is commonly named as “Senna makki” plant occur in North Africa and India, mostly practiced herbs as medicine. Senna Alexandrina is a laxative which is approved from FDA. It is used to provide remedy for fecal impaction, acne, irritable bowel syndrome, skin infections, piles and weight reduction. Flowers and fruits bearing part of this plant are able to cause excretion and provide treatment for people having constipation provided much benefit to their health. It can also decrease inflammation for those people who go through from hemorrhoids. Alexandria senna is able to prevent the absorption of calories into the blood, hence helps in weight loss by passing the food from the body immediately. For skin irritation like pimples and redness Senna plant paste is been applied on affected area to get rid of it. Alexandria senna enhanced the body immune system against different severe conditions because of antibacterial property.

Major health issue among people of both highly developed and developing countries is Cancer, a disease of misplaced cells which have high possibility of excessive growth. It is second killer after cardiovascular disease in the world. Almost 3500 million humans are killed due to cancer around the globe annually. Recently there are three basic procedures of treatment for cancer including surgical procedures, chemotherapies and radiotherapy. The highly effective drugs used in Chemotherapy can be harmful and low percentage of dosage may reach to their target area of cells, whereas the area of cells and tissues that are healthy can also effected and may damage. In Chemotherapy side effects of drugs are a main problem but this therapy is useful in detection of cancer at initial stage. So effectient and reasonable therapeutics agents for cancer is required. That must be harmless, highly effiective against different forms of cancers, palatable, low price and satisfactory by human population. Alternately medicinal plants are used to cure cancer and provide acceptable treatment globally. Natural plants have provided significant acknowledgement in the possible management of respective human clinical conditions like cancer is crucial. Currently almost 60% drugs of anticancer have been isolated from natural plants.It has been reported that above 3000 plants have possess properties of anticancer globally.

Different types of bioassays are helpful for the screening of extracts of medicinal plants which is used for variety of properties i.e. antitumor, antimicrobial, antibacterial, antioxidant, cytotoxic. Potato disc bioassay is used to check the antitumor properties of different extracts of plants. This antitumor activity is based on infection of Agrobacterium tumefaciens bacteria on potato disc. The rational for employing this bioassay rests on the fact that the tumorogenic mechanism of A. tumefaciens in plants is somehow related to animals and Helicobacter pylori tumor in humans sharing an equivalent pathogenicity procedure to A. tumefaciens that is a pathogen of plant. The reported study was used to analyze the antitumor properties of extracts of methanol leaf of C. roseus. Bioactive secondary metabolites are involved in plants of potato disc assay. Scientists gather the different plants then the extracts preparation and testing has been done and discovered advance anticancer drugs and treats viral and microbial infection too. Plants screening through cytotoxic method is used to indicate compounds of plants that are active. Natural products are used to prevent diseases with the help of chemicals helpful in management and cancer control. Various studies have exhibited cytostatic, antiproliferative, and cytotoxic activities of plant chemicals averse to cancer cells.

This study shows the anti-tumor effects different plant extracts of at different concentrations have been analyzed and was tested as possible anticancer agent. The traditional chemotherapeutic drug displayed cytotoxicity on the control cells. The natural plant material has been used in treatment of many types of cancer as encouraging anticancer agents. Advance studies are needed to assure its potency and to interpret its mechanism at different molecular level. Cancer causes much damage to mankind and highly contributes to death of people at larger scale. The Department of Health of the Philippines stated that third main cause of mortility and morbidity rate alongside heart and vascular system diseases is cancer. In the United States one out of four died because of cancer. There are 27 wide spread types of cancers globally. Therefore there is an extreme need to develop new, valuable, effective, productive and selective anticancer drugs. Pharmacologically active medicine is obtained by Screening of different parts of medicinal plants and separation of natural products against cancer. Vinblastine, paclitaxel and vincristine are few compounds that are isolated from plants.

Since then, research on cancer treatment by using natural products of plants to develop various drug is in continuous proess. Approximately 80% of authorize drugs were natural products or their correspondent upto 1990.Various studies evaluated the properties of chemotherapeutic drugs in endemic and primitive plants in the Philippines. Plants that displayed higher cytotoxic activities averse cancer cell lines of human were Ficus septica (Burm.) Aglaia loheri (Blanco), and Voacanga globosa (Blanco) Merr. Hexane extracts from Cassia alata showed exceptional cytotoxicity averse of T24, MCF-7 and Col-2 were bladder, breast and colorectal carcinoma respectively based on dosage. In Indo-China and Phillippines Kalanchoe tubiflora displayed more anticancer properties. It generates multipolarity and damage integrity of centrosome. It restrains alignment of chromosome during metaphase. MTT assay also known as 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide was performed by using crude extracts of plant material against cancer cells to identify the plants material with possible bioactive molecules.

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Therapeutics Role of Azadirachta Indica (neem) and Their Active Constituents in Diseases Prevention and Treatment. (2019, March 12). GradesFixer. Retrieved July 24, 2021, from https://gradesfixer.com/free-essay-examples/therapeutics-role-of-azadirachta-indica-neem-and-their-active-constituents-in-diseases-prevention-and-treatment/
“Therapeutics Role of Azadirachta Indica (neem) and Their Active Constituents in Diseases Prevention and Treatment.” GradesFixer, 12 Mar. 2019, gradesfixer.com/free-essay-examples/therapeutics-role-of-azadirachta-indica-neem-and-their-active-constituents-in-diseases-prevention-and-treatment/
Therapeutics Role of Azadirachta Indica (neem) and Their Active Constituents in Diseases Prevention and Treatment. [online]. Available at: <https://gradesfixer.com/free-essay-examples/therapeutics-role-of-azadirachta-indica-neem-and-their-active-constituents-in-diseases-prevention-and-treatment/> [Accessed 24 Jul. 2021].
Therapeutics Role of Azadirachta Indica (neem) and Their Active Constituents in Diseases Prevention and Treatment [Internet]. GradesFixer. 2019 Mar 12 [cited 2021 Jul 24]. Available from: https://gradesfixer.com/free-essay-examples/therapeutics-role-of-azadirachta-indica-neem-and-their-active-constituents-in-diseases-prevention-and-treatment/
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