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Understand Yourself Better: The Seven Approaches of Psychology

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Psychologists take different approaches when attempting to understand human behavior. For instance, psychologists taking the biological approach assume that differences in behavior can be understood in terms of genes, brain structure, and hormones, which can predispose a person to particular health conditions. The biological approach assumes that biological factors influence our behavior and mental well-being in a cause-and-effect manner, in the same way as exposure to disease can lead to illness. Biological factors include genes, inherited from a person’s parents, which psychologists believe can influence whether they are predisposed to some conditions. The biological approach also focuses on the physical processes that occur within the central nervous system which comprises the brain and spinal cord. Neuroscientists have determined that one-of-a-kind areas of the brain serve particular functions, supporting the effect of the brain’s shape on people’s behavior. For instance, the temporal lobe assists in the processing of language, whilst the frontal lobe performs a function in our trip of emotions. Other than neuroscientists Therapists who believe in the organic strategy can’t prescribe any remedy or function surgical procedures on any of their patients/customers however the organic perspective heavily influenced her evaluation of troubles in a patient and a remedy plan. For example, when dealing with a mental health patient the therapist will talk to an affected person and then after assessing the scenario recommended the patient to a sanatorium to get medication. Biological psychologists also instruct in excessive schools, neighborhood colleges, and postsecondary institutions. I Found this information on pages 108, 190, and 191.

The behavioral approach assumes that each person is born a tabula rasa or blank slate. Rather than being influenced by genes and biological processes, behaviorists believe that our outward behavior is determined by our external environment. A person learns from his or her life experiences and is shaped to behave in a particular way as a result. Behaviorists look at the behavior a person exhibits, rather than the inner processes of the mind. Behaviorism is different from most other approaches because they view people (and animals) as controlled by their environment and specifically that we are the result of what we have learned from our environment. 

Behaviorism is concerned with how environmental factors (called stimuli) affect observable behavior (called the response). The behaviorist approach proposes two main processes whereby people learn from their environment: namely classical conditioning and operant conditioning. Classical conditioning involves learning by association, and operant conditioning involves learning from the consequences of behavior. Classical conditioning (CC) was studied by the Russian psychologist Ivan Pavlov. Through looking into natural reflexes and neutral stimuli he managed to condition dogs to salivate to the sound of a bell through repeated association with the sound of the bell and food. The principles of CC have been applied in many therapies. These include systematic desensitization for phobias (step-by-step exposure to a feared stimulus at once) and aversion therapy. B.F. Skinner investigated operant conditioning of voluntary and involuntary behavior. Skinner felt that some behavior could be explained by the person’s motive. Therefore behavior occurs for a reason, and the three main behavior shaping techniques are positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement, and punishment. 

Behaviorism also believes in scientific methodology (controlled experiments), and that only observable behavior should be studied because this can be objectively measured. Behaviorism rejects the idea that people have free will and believes that the environment determines all behavior. Behaviorism is the scientific study of observable behavior working on the basis that behavior can be reduced to learned S-R (Stimulus-Response) units. Behaviorists and the behavioral perspective, in general, are heavily based on observable behaviors and actions; unlike some of the other perspectives, the behavioral perspective does not pay attention to cognitive processes because they are not observable. A behavioral psychologist would explain an individual’s introverted behavior through what they have been rewarded or punished for in the past. The behavioralist would assume the individual has been punished in the past for attempting to extend their social circle, or they were rewarded in some way for withdrawing from social interaction. 

The Bobo Doll Experiment was performed in 1961 by Albert Bandura, to try and add credence to his belief that all human behavior was learned, through social imitation and copying, rather than inherited through genetic factors. For this purpose, Bandura designed the Bobo Doll Experiment to try and prove that children would copy an adult role model’s behavior. He wanted to show, by using aggressive and non-aggressive actors, that a child would tend to imitate and learn from the behavior of a trusted adult. The Bobo doll is an inflatable toy about five feet tall, designed to spring back upright when knocked over. Children were chosen as subjects for the study because they have less social conditioning; they have also had less instruction and teaching of the rules of society than adult subjects. The results for the Bobo Doll Experiment showed that children who were exposed to the aggressive model were more likely to show imitative aggressive behavior themselves. The measurements for verbally aggressive behavior again showed that children exposed to aggressive role models were more likely to imitate this behavior. Subjects in the Bobo Doll Experiment exposed to the non-aggressive model, or no model at all showed little imitative aggressive behavior. I Found this information on pages 212, 214, and 230 from.

The cognitive method takes a specific view of human conduct to behaviorists. Instead of definitely gazing behavior, it appears at the internal, cognitive approaches that lead a man or woman to act in a unique way. Cognitive Psychology focuses on troubles such as the encoding, consolidation, and retrieval of memories, emotions, perception, problem-solving, and language. Cognitive scientists frequently use the metaphor of intellectual functioning in a comparable way to a computer. Just as a pc processor retrieves facts from a disk or the internet, the intelligence receives input signals: visible input from the eyes, sound from the ears, and sensations by nerves, The brain then procedures this input and responds with a precise output, such as thinking or signal to move a precise muscle. 

This laptop analogy of talent can be viewed in many cognitive explanations of the human mind. The cognitive perspective is involved with “mental” functions such as memory, perception, attention, etc. It views human beings as being similar to computer systems in the way we procedure facts each human brains and computers manner information, store records and have entered an output procedure. This had led cognitive psychologists to provide an explanation for that reminiscence contains of three stages: encoding (where records is obtained and attended to), storage (where the information is retained), and retrieval (where the statistics are recalled). The humanistic strategy emphasizes the importance of qualitative proof over the quantitative, statistical measurements of extra-scientific approaches. Individuals may be interviewed and allowed to categorize their real feelings. Open-ended questionnaires might also be used, as properly as consumer observations and diary-keeping. 

Jean Piaget’s theory of cognitive development suggests that children move through four different stages of mental development. His theory focuses not only on understanding how children acquire knowledge but also on understanding the nature of intelligence. Piaget’s stages are: Sensorimotor stage: birth to 2 years, Preoperational stage: ages 2 to 7, Concrete operational stage: ages 7 to 11, Formal operational stage: ages 12 and up. Piaget believed that children take an active role in the learning process, acting much like little scientists as they perform experiments, make observations, and learn about the world. As kids interact with the world around them, they continually add new knowledge, build upon existing knowledge, and adapt previously held ideas to accommodate new information. Piaget’s stage theory describes the cognitive development of children. Cognitive development involves changes in cognitive processes and abilities. In Piaget’s view, early cognitive development involves processes based upon actions and later progresses to changes in mental operations. Vygotsky’s theories stress the fundamental role of social interaction in the development of cognition, as he believed strongly that community plays a central role in the process of ‘making meaning.’ Unlike Piaget’s notion that childrens’ development must necessarily precede their learning, Vygotsky argued, ‘learning is a necessary and universal aspect of the process of developing culturally organized, specifically human psychological function. I got this information from chapter 10 of.

Humanistic psychology is a psychological perspective that emphasizes the study of the whole person (known as holism). Humanistic psychologists look at human behavior, not only through the eyes of the observer but through the eyes of the person doing the behaving. Humanistic psychologists believe that an individual’s behavior is connected to his inner feelings and self-image. The humanistic approach suggests that we are each responsible for our personal happiness and well-being as humans. We have the innate ability for self-actualization, which is our special desire to obtain our best possible as people. Because of this center of attention on the individual and his or her private experiences and subjective appreciation of the world the humanists regarded scientific strategies as inappropriate for reading behavior. The humanistic approach additionally rejected the determinism of the psychodynamic approach, with its assumption that the unconscious and its innate drives lead to a person’s behavior, as an alternative than his or her free will. Instead, the humanistic approach assumes that humans possess some degree of self-control, and are successful in figuring out their own behavior. Whilst beliefs, values, morals, and desires have an effect on our actions, we possess free will and are eventually responsible for our behavior. Humanistic psychologists acknowledge the unique individuality of each person, and accept that subjective experiences make contributions to our personalities and our behavior. 

The psychodynamic approach emphasizes the function that the internal ‘dynamics’ of a person’s character play on his or her behavior. These consist of the innate drives which we are born with, but remain unconscious of; At times, these drives result in the manageable for undesirable or socially unacceptable behavior. Therefore, the thinking tries to silence desires, such as sexual drives, by using repressing them. However, repression does not dispose of a person’s impulses, and internal conflicts can surface as reputedly unrelated troubles later in life. The psychodynamic method was popularised by means of the writings of Austrian health practitioner Sigmund Freud. Freud’s publications, which covered case studies and psychodynamic theories on issues such as the human psyche and humor, have led to him being regarded as the father of psychoanalysis. Freud recognized 5 stages of psychosexual development, all through which a man or woman derives delight from a different place of the body or erogenous zone. These ranges include the oral stage all through feeding, as a toddler enjoys remedy from consuming milk. The later anal stage encompasses a period of loo training. Freud believed that if a person was avoided from satisfying their wishes at any stage, a fixation involving the relevant erogenous sector ought to occur. For example, if a toddler is unable to feed appropriately all through the oral stage, according to Freud’s theory, they may also later increase a habit of nail-biting or smoking. 

Additionally, Freud proposed that the human psyche is comprised of three competing entities: the id, ego, and superego. The identification drives impulsive desires, whilst the ego tempers such desires with the external realities of probably being punished for behaving irrationally. The superego is aware of a person’s movements on others and is responsible for emotions of guilt and regret. The psychodynamic strategy also regards human conduct as being encouraged with the aid of a want to shop face in order two to keep one’s self-esteem and experience of worth. Thoughts threatening to the ego are confronted with the deployment of defense mechanisms, which encompass repression, sublimation, and the transference of feelings from one person to another. Another way of explaining this viewpoint is that psychodynamic psychologists agree that the motive for whatever a person does has to do with some things in their past. To overcome something in the present, the person simply has to apprehend what befell them in the past. The psychiatrist and psychotherapist Carl Gustav Jung proposed that everyone’s personality contains elements of four major archetypes. These archetypes provide models for our behavior and influence the way we think and act. Jung labeled these archetypes the Self, the Persona, the Shadow, and the Anima/Animus. While Jung provided the four archetypes of personality Psychoanalytic theorists Karen Horney developed one of the best-known theories of neurosis. She believed that neurosis resulted from basic anxiety caused by interpersonal relationships. Horney’s theory proposes that strategies used to cope with anxiety can be overused, causing them to take on the appearance of needs.

Environmental psychology is finding out about transactions between humans and their bodily settings. In these transactions, men and women trade the environment, and their behavior and experiences are changed with the aid of the environment. Environmental psychology includes theory, research, and exercise aimed at enhancing our relationship with the herbal environment and making constructions extra humane. Environmental psychology is an interdisciplinary field that focuses on the interplay between men and women and their surroundings. The area defines the term environment broadly, encompassing herbal environments, social settings, built environments, learning environments, and informational environments. Environmental psychology is involved in the interplay between human beings and the environment. The research focuses on psychological techniques related to how people affect their environment, and additionally how the surroundings affect people. Environmental psychology can examine for instance how resource usage and sustainability inside consumption, transportation, or policymaking are related to the well-being of humans, animals, and the environment.

Psychologists using the Cultural approach often seem to be at an individual’s conduct based on the have an effect on of the individual’s culture. Essentially, this perspective looks at how people engage with their social and cultural groups, as properly as how these companies affect an individual’s behavior. cultural psychology is a department of psychology that appears at how cultural elements impact human behavior. While many aspects of human concept and conduct are universal, cultural differences can lead to frequently stunning differences in how people think, feel, and act. Some cultures, for example, might stress individualism and the significance of non-public autonomy. Other cultures, however, might also vicinity a higher fee on collectivism and cooperation among the contributors of the group. Such variations can play an effective position in many aspects of life. 

Social psychology examines the way businesses and social structures form individuals—their perceptions, beliefs, identities, attitudes, emotions, and behaviors—and how folks performing together create, maintain, and alternate social structures. The research includes how individuals’ areas in social structures, such as class, race, or gender, have an impact on their behavior, perspectives, emotions, and even health. It also examines how people engage with one another, have an effect on and are influenced by every other’s actions and communications, and boost social selves and identities that inform their future behavior. By coordinating behavior thru interactions, humans create team constructions such as hierarchies and roles, as properly as unity and shared identities amongst team members. With all this being said a social-cultural psychologist would seem at an individual’s introverted or extroverted behavior as an end result of the cultural guidelines of social interaction. A character may also appear introverted, but in reality, they are following the social norms they have discovered from their culture.

Therefore, in conclusion, there are so many different perspectives in psychology to explain the different types of behavior and give different angles. No one perspective has explanatory powers over the rest. Only with all the different types of psychology, which sometimes contradict one another. The fact that there are different perspectives represents the complexity and richness of human and animal behavior. Unfortunately, the seven approaches aren’t equally funded and used. The most popular approach starts with the biological approach then follows the behavioral approach, then the cognitive approach, then the humanistic approach, then the psychodynamic approach along with the environmental approach, and then finally the cultural approach. Hopefully with all of the different approaches in psychology people can have a better understanding of themselves, as well as other people, and be able to identify, define, predict, and control animal and human behavior. 

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