About this sample
About this sample
Words: 1007 |
6 min read
Published: Feb 12, 2024
Words: 1007|Pages: 2|6 min read
Bipolar disorder, also known as manic-depressive disorder, is a mental illness that affects an individual's mood, behavior, thoughts, and perceptions, leading to abnormal shifts in energy, mood, and functioning (Huxley, 2002). The symptoms of bipolar disorder are severe and can result in broken relationships, poor performance in school or work, and even suicide in extreme cases. However, bipolar disorder is treatable, and individuals with this illness can lead productive and fulfilling lives.
About 5.7 million American adults, or approximately 2.6% of the population aged 18 and above, suffer from bipolar disorder each year (NIMH, 2009). It is more common in early adulthood and in people who have reached puberty. However, some individuals may experience their first symptoms during childhood, while others may develop them later in life. Bipolar disorder is often not recognized as an illness, and individuals may go undiagnosed and untreated for years. Similar to other chronic illnesses, bipolar disorder requires careful management throughout an individual's life (NIMH, 2009).
Bipolar disorder is characterized by dramatic mood swings, ranging from extreme highs to lows, and often includes periods of normal mood in between. These mood swings are followed by cycles of relapse and remission, with relapses lasting around three to six months. These episodes can be depressive, hypomanic, manic, or a combination of both, and may also include psychotic symptoms (MFMER, 2008).
Bipolar I disorder is characterized by alternating episodes of full-blown mania and major depressive episodes. Depression usually occurs first, followed by mania, or vice versa. Bipolar II disorder is characterized by at least one major depressive episode and one hypomanic episode. Hypomanic episodes may sometimes occur as a recurrent depressive state, with symptoms such as elevated mood, increased energy, and reduced need for sleep. Other features of bipolar disorder include seasonal patterns of overeating or undereating, sleeplessness, and poor appetite during depressive phases (NIMH, 2009).
Manic episodes are characterized by an elevated, irritable, and persistently elevated mood, along with other symptoms such as grandiosity, reduced need for sleep, increased talkativeness, racing thoughts, increased goal-directed activity, and engagement in pleasurable activities with potential negative consequences (Goodwin, 2000). Patients in manic episodes may exhibit energetic and colorful behavior, speak authoritatively, and have difficulty staying on one topic. They often engage in impulsive and risky behaviors without considering the potential consequences (Goodwin, 2000).
Hypomanic episodes are characterized by a mixed state of manic and depressive symptoms, such as temporary changes to tearfulness during manic episodes or racing thoughts during depressive phases. In some cases, the entire episode may be mixed, with symptoms including lack of sleep, heightened mood, occasional crying, deep worries, nervous agitation, impulsiveness, suicidal thoughts, and confusion (NIMH, 2009).
Individuals with bipolar disorder are at a higher risk of suicide. Warning signs include feelings of hopelessness, helplessness, drug abuse, giving away belongings, and reorganizing finances. The risk of suicide is highest at the beginning of the illness, so early identification and treatment are crucial in reducing this risk (Parikh, 2004).
The causes of bipolar disorder are complex and involve a combination of genetic, cognitive, neurodevelopmental, environmental, and mental health factors. Genetic research suggests that bipolar disorder is not caused by a single gene but rather a combination of multiple genes and other factors in an individual's environment (Huxley, 2002). Neurodevelopmental factors, such as delays in language, motor, and social development, have also been linked to the development of bipolar disorder in adolescents (Luby, 2008). Environmental factors, such as unstable relationships or exposure to toxic chemicals, can also contribute to the development of bipolar disorder (NIMH, 2009). Additionally, individuals with a history of mental health disorders are at a higher risk of developing bipolar disorder (Hyman, 1999).
Treatment for bipolar disorder involves a combination of medication and psychosocial interventions. Medications known as mood stabilizers are commonly used to control and manage bipolar disorder. Lithium, the first mood stabilizer approved by the FDA, is effective in treating both depressive and manic episodes. Anticonvulsant medications can also be used as mood stabilizers for more resistant episodes (Mood disorders Society of Canada, 2009).
Psychosocial treatments, such as psychotherapy and family therapy, are also effective in managing bipolar disorder. These treatments provide support, guidance, education, and help individuals and their families understand the illness and identify early signs of relapse (Parikh, 2004). Social workers play a crucial role in providing these therapies and assisting bipolar disorder patients in managing their symptoms and improving their overall quality of life.
Psychotherapy, or talk therapy, can help individuals with bipolar disorder gain insight into their illness, develop coping strategies, and learn to recognize and manage triggers and early warning signs of relapse. Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is one type of psychotherapy that has been shown to be effective in treating bipolar disorder. CBT focuses on identifying and changing negative thought patterns and behaviors that can contribute to mood swings and episodes (NIMH, 2009).
Family therapy is another important component of treatment for bipolar disorder. Family members can play a significant role in supporting and assisting individuals with bipolar disorder in adhering to their treatment plan and managing their symptoms effectively. Family therapy can help improve communication and understanding among family members, reduce stress and conflict, and provide a supportive environment for the individual with bipolar disorder (Mood disorders Society of Canada, 2009).
Self-care and lifestyle changes are also crucial in managing bipolar disorder. Individuals with bipolar disorder should prioritize their physical and mental well-being by getting regular exercise, maintaining a balanced diet, getting enough sleep, and avoiding alcohol and drug use. Engaging in stress-reducing activities such as meditation, relaxation techniques, and hobbies can also help individuals manage their symptoms and prevent relapse (NIMH, 2009).
In conclusion, bipolar disorder is a complex mental illness that affects millions of individuals worldwide. It is characterized by severe mood swings and can have a significant impact on an individual's life. However, with proper diagnosis, treatment, and support, individuals with bipolar disorder can lead productive and fulfilling lives. Medication, psychotherapy, and lifestyle changes are all important components of treatment for bipolar disorder. With early intervention and ongoing management, individuals with bipolar disorder can effectively manage their symptoms and improve their overall well-being.
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