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In Zhao Xiao’s book “Churches and the market economy,” it is indicated that, American churches are the core that binds Americans together.The Europeans don’t feel contented with the naive visualization of religious USA by hopeful scholars of Pop China. Americans believe that modernism and religion will thrive together while Europeans have assumed that modernity would marginalize religion thus leading to reluctance of Europeans in embracing Christianity. Europe has many churches, nearly in every village but were abandoned. These churches usually have a handful a number of visitors during Sundays. Most of the congregation comprises of people who are above age of 50 years old. Hardly do these churches have priests anymore. The Europeans in this book argued that they were the last generation of disappearing Christian religions. These remaining are also moving to other faiths such as Buddhism, the Asian religion. The French revolutionaries’ corned religion and regard it as an apparatus of olden government while the America founding fathers took a view of the beginning view of worship. According to them church is divided from state but not with the intention to protect the earlier from the state. However, in Europe the formation of churches are considered to go alongside the old regime as opposed to the current world of democracy, as well as liberty. America portrays a different stand; it upheld the faith and embraced both democracy and the market in order to survive through attracting customers. In addition, Europe religion has turned out to be war or oppression as Edmund Burke, once observed while in America is contrary, it appears to be the foundation of freedom. Karl Marx, a European criticized religion and regarded it as the opium of the people. On the other hand, Freud also dismissed religion as obsession aimed at diverting the attention man away from his interest, sex. In the book Churches and Market Economy, it is clear that Europeans are not satisfied with State religions in which the US presidents and defendants are expected to swear on the bible. The fact that the president for instance G W Bush initializing his government meetings in a word of prayer disturbed the Europeans a lot. In the book, God is Back it is clear that America is concerned about the problem of the increasing secularists. However, its standpoint is clear that as Europe continues being the cultural negotiator of the world, she will discharge herself as an odd state. America will stay worshiping God while the rest of the world is modernizing behind the European as opposed to American. The encroaching globalization could change this situation with time. Given some time with America growing, she will finally turn. There are, however, some signs that this happened in the mid-twentieth century when American evangelical withdrew from the public square. Their views concerning evolution would be ridiculed. In addition, the growing army of America scholars has argued that being a country they ought, not to be exceptional. It is also arguable that the faith communities have initiated interactions with each other as well as with the secular forces in the states and societies transversely in various issues.
Religious pluralism is a notion in different disciplinary contexts such as Theology and Sociology. Religious pluralism can refer to the forms of peaceful relations among various religious actors, which can be individual, or groups who act as per the religious custom. However, this does not suggest diverse religions as well as varied pathways of the equivalent truth, as depicted in some theological settings. Religious pluralism can be the association of religious players with each other as well as the society as well as the state around the stable social, cultural, political, and economic outlines. It represents a politics connection various communities having corresponding and typical interests with ethics.
Religious pluralism poses a double challenge to identity politics, it that it causes unsettlement on identification of the nation-state with the secular state. Sometimes the state restricts trans-national religious communities as alleged threats to local and national identities It also poses challenges of new technologies and Jihadi terrorism to the USA from her primary enemy, the Al-Qaeda’s. Jihadi propagandists are quite conversant with the use of computers and the importance of internet which enables them to transfer their ideology all over the world. Jerrett M. Bracman observes that on September 11, 2001 the Al-Qaeda attacked USA. According to him, USA has tried to combat the Al-Qaeda but has kept on changing by embracing the new technology. These resulted in a High-Tech Terror. In the fight against the jihadi terrorism with the use of new technologies, USA has checked the Jihadi by use of bureaucracies as opposed to finding operative information. The United States has made religious freedom a direct foreign guiding principle priority.
The religious interpretation of the problem of capitalism is entirely persuasive. Practically, we find in chapter 8 that as an institution grows and becomes influential as well being wealthy, human beings operating in the organization have less control in what the institution is doing reasonably. The system is said to have powers and through individuals who comprise it assumes its life. However, the system stresses on loyalty from those who are part of the institution. The principalities put itself in the position of God and mislead human beings to think or to act as if the moral value of people is stated or determined by the commitment to yield. With this, people end serving institutions instead of the organization serving life. However, these corporations limits, regulator and devour human life so that it can withstand, outspread, and flourish their existence. For those in the institution to be at an ease, they have to ignore any harm the organization done by the institution. They need to more defensive and supportive of the organization decisions. In the process of performing the objectives of the organization, one becomes irresponsible and discriminating human being.
The American style of religion has far much competitive advantage than the European style of worship. The competitive advantage implies that the America’s religion is more advanced than the European religion in that, Americans embraced Christianity without and utterances to counter Christianity. While Europeans dwelt mostly on modernization assuming that modernity would marginalize religion thus their reluctance in embracing faith. Religion is economically viable in that; it boosts the market economy thus promoting the competitiveness of the Americans. First American church founded by the religious refugees who were able to advocate fostering of religion in America. It is also evident that, the American constitution, commands a religion with free market. There are no barriers to entry, and the market is vast and for this reason supporting an overwhelming of religious producers. Because of stiff competition, some new spiritual businesspersons are continually rising up to contest the occupants. As well, America has the largest pool of religious consumers with the best religious infrastructure, which include religious schools, colleges, as well as religious broadcasts. As well, there are religious specialists.
Micklethwait and Wooldridge observe America’s religions as also characterized by thriving markets for ethical products such as books and films. With American churches, there is also use of business approaches to the management. With the rising of mega churches, there have been several tendencies to mix religion with business. The management is transforming many people to God and providing more cash for churches to further, spread the word. Mega churches usually target those who are teens. As they leave the church are not comfortable with an overt display of religiosity, apply similar consumerist mindset to spiritual life they do to other aspects of their experience. Mega churches utilize apparatuses of American society in an attempt to spread religion and encouraging organizations to provide sponsorship dollars to Christian America that would have been put into use elsewhere.
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