Use of Plants to Synthesize Nanoparticles

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About this sample


Words: 1806 |

Pages: 4|

10 min read

Published: Jun 5, 2019

Words: 1806|Pages: 4|10 min read

Published: Jun 5, 2019

Table of contents

  1. Ocium tenuiflorum
  2. Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles
    Strucrure of Zinc Oxide
    Properties of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles
    Zno nanostructures
    Application of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles

Synthesis of nanoparticles through plant is simple, fast harmless and straightforward because plants are easily available.Medicago sativa is used to prepare gold nanoparticles having size in the range of 2-20nm [38].Brassica juncea is used to prepare nanoparticles such as silver nanoparticles and zno nanoparticles.Those plants which are capable to have larger amount of metal than other plants are called hyperaccumulators. This property is common in Brassica juncea plant to synthesis nanoparticles.[39].Photochemical are used as reducing agent to prepare various nanoparticles such as formaldehyde, acetone and acetic acid etc.When we used water soluble phytochemical such as benzoic acid then reduction occur easily.

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Gold nanomaterial are prepared through Magnolia kobus extracts as well as extracts of Diopyros kaki.Temperature play important role in the formation of nanoparticles ,when we used low temperature then we do not get uniform sized nanoparticles but we get nanoparticles in the range of 5-300nm.But when temperature is high then uniform size nanoparticles are formed[ 41]

Synthesis of nanoparticles through bacteria and fungi takes long duration to reduce the metal ion.But in the presence of flavones and benzoic acid metal ions are easily reduced.Due to this reason plants are major source to prepare nanoparticle than bacteria and fungi.

Ocium tenuiflorum

Ocium tenuiflorum may be a member of family Labiates family as well as proverbial in varied communities with totally various names .The embrace holy basil,tulasi or tulsi [42].Holy basil is a associate degree aromatic ,erect ,branched perennial plant. It grows from 30-100cm tall. It is cultivated in tropical areas for its leaves and medical uses. It is utilized in salads. It is additionally used as a flavored during a sort of dishes. From their leaves , refreshing tea will be created .In medical purpose of read, it is wont to lower glucose level .It is additionally in treatment of feverish illeness,cold ,influenza,headaches,arthritis and organic process disorder etc.The herb is employed outwardly as antiseptic to treat skin infection ,spots etc.The juice of plant is employed to insect bites and roundworm

Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles

Semiconductor nano crystallite zinc oxide are mainly used in research due to their potential approach in nanotechnology as well as in nanoscience.Two types of excitations occur in semiconductor ,one is exitonic transitions and other is deep trap transition. In exitonic transition electron goes from conduction band into valence band. While deep trap level occur due to surface defect because in this case surface plasmonas is high. Physical properties of nanoparticles depend on size, when radius of nanoparticles is compared with the radius of organic compound. Nanoparticles show little emission property in exitonic level and there is no change in any types of shifts ,but nanomaterial show deep emission in deep trap level indicates the change in shifts due to change in wavelength. The emission spectrum depends on the size of nanocomposite and size of nanoparticles is also affected by optical properties. .Optical properties becomes dominant by surface plasmonas.Due to increase in surface to volume ratio, then deep transition is negligible.[47,48].Zinc oxide nanoparticles is wide band gap compound semiconductor which have 3.37ev and its exciton binding energy is also high such as 60mev.[49] Zinc oxide is ecofriendly semiconductor.

Research is mostly done on zinc oxide nanoparticles due to its specific properties and are used in antireflective plating ,photovoltaic cell, ultraviolet rays, semiconductor laser,nano actuators ,spintronic devices[50,51],bactericider[52],photo catalysis as gas sensor [54].Zinc oxide nanoparticles are considered as biocompatible but it can also cause toxicity.

Zinc oxide is commonly used inorganic nanomaterial because we prepare zinc oxide nanoparticles easily and it is greenish material that is bio-safe, greenly and non hazardous for medicinal treatment and social science [56].There are various synthetic techniques to prepare zinc oxide nanoparticles like physical vapour deposition techniques [57], pulsed laser deposition [58] ion promulgation [59], electron beam physical vapor deposition [60] and sol-gel method [61]

Strucrure of Zinc Oxide

Structure of zinc oxide is wurtzite hexagonal crystal as well as stable. And its structure can be seen under microscope. In zinc oxide center of symmetry is absent in wurtzite hexagonal crystal causes strong piezoelectric as well as pyroelectric effect. It is wide band compound semiconductor which has 3.37ev.It is transparent to visible light and made highly conductive through the process of dopping.Zno structure has hexagonal unit cell with two lattice parameter

Properties of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles

Zinc oxide shows different properties.

Mechanical properties

Electronic properties

Optical properties

Chemical properties

Mechanical properties

Zinc oxide nanoparticles shows different mechanical properties like structure sensitive properties such as yield stress and toughness as well as structure insensitive properties such as density, elastic modulus. When electric field is applied in the system then mechanical stress is produced .The piezoelectric effect is force of attraction between mechanical and electrical field in nanoparticles in the absence of symmetry. Piezoelectric effect shows direct piezoelectric phenomenon mean electric charge is produced as result of mechanical field. Piezoelectric effect is also reverse piezoelectric process in which we apply electric field then mechanical stress is produced .It is used as transducers for ultrasound imaging. Zinc oxide shows strong piezoelectric effect so it is used in piezoelectric sensor. The piezoelectric sensor has three dimensional model which do not depend in hexagonal wurtize in which one is cubic and that show the strong piezoelectric effect. And other two are use to determine polarity on c axis, in the absence of electric field, by a constant force either on c axis or along basic plane [67].

Electronic properties

Zinc oxide nanomaterial is wide band compound semiconductor which has 3.37ev.Pure zinc oxide do not have any colour as well as it show transparency. Due to large band gap voltage decreased, electric field increased, temperature also become high and other operation becomes powerful. When we add magnesium oxide or cadmium oxide, then zinc oxide band gap more increased from 3-4 ev.

N-type character is most common in zinc oxide nanoparticles without impurities. For this purpose oxygen vacancies or zinc interstitial is more common. Hydrogen like impurities play important role in theoretical application. When we substitute zinc group third element Boron, Gallium, Indium or substitute oxygen to group seventh such as Cl or I then 5-covalent dopant are formed .3-valent dopant is difficult in zinc because p-type dopant have less solubility.

Optical properties

Zinc oxide nanoparticles have larger band gap that shows emission of photon in visible region which is called luminescence. The luminescent properties of zinc oxide nanoparticles occur in visible region mostly depend on band gap. Size and shape are used to determine luminescent properties of zinc oxide nanoparticles.When you reduced the particle size then enhancement of luminescence properties of core when we have shell around it. Two types of emission occur one at 440nm and other at 580nm because absorption spectra depends on size of particles .Photoluminescence spectra gives yellow emission at 580nm and other emission occur at 440nm when shell layer is present. Two types of emission occur and are measured by optical properties. In the presence of shell intensity increased and in the absence of shell intensity decrease.

Chemical properties

In mineral form zno is found as zincite as well as white powder called white zinc. When we add manganese impurity to zinc oxide then it show orange or red colour.Zinc oxide in crystal form shows thermochromism property. When heat is given to zno then colour is changed from white to yellow .But on cooling colour becomes white. When temperature is high then colour change due to loss of oxygen. Zinc oxide shows amphoteric nature, means it shows reaction with acid as well as with base. Zinc sulfate is formed by the reaction of zinc oxide with acid. Similarly zincates are formed by reacting the zinc oxide with base. Decomposition of zinc oxide gives zinc vapour as well as oxygen showing its stable form. When we heat the zinc oxide in the presence of carbon then zno is converted into zinc and that shows more evaporation. When zinc oxide is exposed to air absorbs the steam, and carbon dioxide is changed into zinc carbonate.

Zno nanostructures

Semiconductor like nanotubes, nanobelt are mostly used because of physical properties such as quantum dots. Colloidal semiconductor quantum sized crystal as a new class of process able building blocks for the next generation of hybrid devices. Nanostructures are best to study the transport system in one dimension semiconductor that has advantage not only in zero dimension semiconductors but also acts as transistors for next generation. Silicon and carbon and zinc oxide are used to make nanowires when we used catalyst assisted vapour –liquid-solid growth process, vapour solid growth process. Among semiconductor nanomaterial zinc oxide nanoparticles have potential application because of its greater exciton binding energy and high resistance. One dimensional zinc oxide nanoparticles are used mostly in research to report nanostructures of different shapes like nanotubes,nanoshell,nanorods ,etc are prepared through various process[66]

Application of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles

Zinc oxide nanoparticles are utilized as supplier in food industry [67].

It is utilized in different cosmetic products such as sunblock,it does not absorb U.V rays but it scatter U.V rays [68,69].In oral ingestion, zinc shows less absorption and bulk size zno shows less dispersion ,less UV blocking capacity,less transparent to skin and do not agglomerate easily than than nano sized zno.Small sized zinc oxide are attractive to carry out zinc and promote ultraviolet filtering capacity in cosmetic products.

In numerous paints zinc oxide are utilized for the purpose of coating agent.

Calamine lotion and other creams are prepared by zinc oxide nanoparticles

Zinc oxide nanoparticles enter the cell easily than micro-sized particles.Researchers perfomed many research that effect of biological parameter of zinc oxide nanoparticles on cell caused toxicity.

Zinc oxide nanoparticles show antibiotic resistance and that is due to reactive oxygen species that is present on the nanoparticles surface.

Zinc oxide and silver oxide have antimicrobic impact .so this impact of biologic element is studied by various researchers[.70]Antibacterial activity of zno increased when we decrease the size of nanoparticles.[71]Zinc oxide nanoparticles are non hazardous as well as antibiotic agent.

Zinc oxide nanoparticles are utilized to preserve the various chemical as well as product like plastic ,pots,paints ,food etc.[72].

The advantage of zinc oxide nanoparticles is that its cost is not fastly exceeding ,good gas sensors,photocatalysis,bactericidal activity,used to make different structure due to optical properties such as optical fibers, auttopcatalytic material[73].

Zno have many potential applications such as used as catalyst in the polymerization process.

Zinc oxide nanoparticles are transparent to visible light such as broad UV-A and UV-B blocking. Due to this reason ,it is utilized in sunblock,pigment ,synthetic fibers, resin and plastic[ 74].

When we utilized in vitro condition then zinc oxide and titanium oxide release the free metal ion in presence of catalyst such as light and this free metal ion damage the tissues. It is due to photo –genotoxicity with zinc oxide nanoparticles.

Semiconductor nanocrystallite zinc oxide nanoparticles show excellent optical and electrical properties. Due to this reason it is utilized to make nanoscale device like photovoltaic cell,biosensor,LED and spin functional tool.[75]

Rubber and cigarettes are made by zinc oxide nanopartyicles.

It is used for the concrete purpose.

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It is used to prepare various types of batteries such as lithium batteries.

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Use of Plants to Synthesize Nanoparticles. (2019, May 14). GradesFixer. Retrieved April 15, 2024, from
“Use of Plants to Synthesize Nanoparticles.” GradesFixer, 14 May 2019,
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