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Abnormal psychology and therapy is a division in psychology that seeks to explain why some people behave in unusual way. The unusual characters can be viewed as those behaviors which are generally intolerable in the society and those that are risky to themselves and other people. Those people that behave abnormally usually suffer from individual distress. The study also helps to teach people how they can identify the treat and eventually recuperate from the said psychological ailments. Contrary to the past study, the present research has also incorporated the study of normal psychology and therapy. Normal psychology helps to explain the usual behavior that should be depicted in persons who have sane minds or people who do not have psychological impairments. These are persons whose characters are acceptable in the society. In addition, they are able to adapt and deal with any difficulties that may arise; they have a correct view of what happens in the real world, avoid doing what is dangerous to them and to other people. More so, they are able to have a normal growth and development as far as psychology is concerned (Comer, 2005).
As far as diagnosing psychological disorders is concerned, other perceptions rather than behavioral changes can be used. This includes cognitive and medical perspectives. In reference to behavioral perspectives, psychiatrists, psychologists and counselors dwell on the behaviors they can observe physically. This therapy seeks to highlight affirmative character. On the other hand, medical therapy concentrates on the biological factors that result to mental ailments. It further establishes the sources of these impairments: chemical imbalances, genetic inheritance, infections and other interconnected physical disorders. To offset this, medical actions in the manner of pharmacology are used together with other examples of psychotherapy. Alternatively, cognitive perspectives can be involved. This therapy dwells on how people acquire mental illness through what they think internally, their reasoning and insights. The remedy for this basically involves teaching them to evaluate their thoughts and actions. These can be used together with behavioral perspectives through a technique called “cognitive behavioral therapy” (Kowalski & Western, 2005).
Mental disorders refer to some forms of behavior which are portrayed by persons who are known to be suffering from distress and disabilities that are not experienced by persons with normal psychological growth and development. Occasionally, mental disorders can be caused by one’s self approval. These mental ailments can be displayed in all people irrespective of their age and gender. The different complaints that are often categorized as mental illnesses include anxiety disorders, mood disorders, development disorders, adjustment disorders and cognitive disorders. People suffering from mental disorders often become fearful and dreadful to certain things and circumstances. They also display physical characters associated with being anxious or nervous such as sweating as well as their hearts beating rapidly. The symptoms of anxiety disorder involve inappropriate reaction to certain situations and if the person’s normal functioning is interfered with. Some of anxiety disorders are social anxiety disorders, obsessive or compulsive disorders, generalized anxiety disorders, panic disorders and post traumatic disorders. Mood disorders (also referred to as affective disorders), on the other hand, entail repeated moods extreme happiness, sadness or waver of the moods from being sad to being happy and vice versa. Some of the major mood disorders are bipolar disorder, depression and mania (American Psychiatric Association, 1994).
Some of the mental ailments that affect the brain include schizophrenia and manic-depressive illness (also known as bipolar disorder). The latter is a prolonged brain disorder which causes changes in the moods of a person, activity level, his or her strength as well as his or her capability to do the daily errands. Manic-depressive illness mainly affects older people. This is also a prolonged, severe incapacitating brain disorder people have suffered from for quite some time (an equivalent of 1% American). People who suffer from this disorder often perceive voices which are not heard by other people. They also have beliefs that other persons are studying their minds; these imaginary persons are regulating what they are thinking or these people are planning to cause harm to them. As a result of these philosophies they become withdrawn and really nervous. Consequently, people suffering from this disorder find it difficult to handle a job or even take care of themselves due to lack of emotional stability.
Psychology is not a generalized science. There are various schools of thought. Each school of thought tries to come up with a theory in a bid to explain how different psychological difficulties have originated. The main schools of thought are humanistic, psychodynamic, biological, cognitive and cognitive-behavioral. Humanistic therapy tends to focus on those qualities that uniquely identify a person. It also dwells on the significance of the relationship between a therapist and the client. In this context, therapy refers to the process of being aware of one’s emotions. This is the hallmark of this therapy and it brings out the significance of this type of relationship. On the other hand, psychodynamic therapy tries to explain how psychological difficulties have been created through the pressure between sensible and insensible forces. These difficulties arose during childhood and psychoanalysis is the extended process of creating awareness of the said insensible elements. Biological therapy (also known as pharmacotherapy) identifies psychological difficulties as a replication of mind pathology. This therapy involves prescription of medications where only the psychiatrists can suggest the medication. Usually, they prescribe medication referred to as psychotropic. There are numerous types of psychotropic medications and most of them work on “neurotransmitter sites”. A number of these medications prevent particular neural transmission while the rest intensifies it (David & Diane, 2007).
Further, cognitive therapy tries to explain that psychological difficulties are caused by challenging or biased cognition. Unlike psychodynamic therapy, the fundamental contemplations in cognitive therapy are regarded as spontaneous and not insensible. In this context, therapy refers to the practice of ascertaining and modifying the said spontaneous thoughts. When these cognitive alterations are established, therapy turns into the practice of modifying the designs to come up with remedies to psychological difficulties. Lastly, cognitive-behavioral therapy dwells on a person’s present life and sensible thought designs and characters. Therapists are always on the point making particular suggestions on how to amend an individual’s character. The whole process is clearly outlined and the interview is direct. Research has shown the therapy to be an appropriate means of remedying psychological difficulties. The similarity that exists in all the different types of therapies is that none is more effective than the other. However, there is a number of things to put into consideration for any of the therapies to be more effective. The perception of the source of psychological difficulties faced by an individual should be in line with the perception of the therapist. Motivation and commitment of the patient are also the key factors.
In conclusion, it has been established that people misunderstand disorders as a result of the deeds of persons suffering from this ailments. Therefore, creating awareness about brain disorders should be encouraged so as to reduce the misinterpretation of these disorders and also intensify the care that should be offered to those who are suffering from the said disorders.
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