Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

About this sample

About this sample


Words: 2013 |

Pages: 4|

11 min read

Published: Dec 5, 2018

Words: 2013|Pages: 4|11 min read

Published: Dec 5, 2018

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis also known as ALS or Lou Gehrig’s disease is a disease. This disease attacks nerve cell and pathways to the brain and the spain cord. The nerve cells that are being attacked control muscle function that control the body mean all motor function as well. When these cell get attacked the start to die off as a result to treat the muscles in the body start to weaken and cause difficulty with speaking, swallowing and breathing. This disease can cause people to stop breathing as well. It is a rare disease that only 20,000 to 30,000 people in the USA are found with this disease. However it is the most common motor mondo disease among adults. About 5,000 people is diagnosed with this disease per year. It normale shown in people in the age of 40 to 60 but there are some causes that people have it when younger. Men are more likely to get this disease than women. There is a 5 to 10 percent chance that that this disease can be hereditary. If a parent has ALS there is a 50 percent chances that there child will get this disease. They also found out that in certain places there are is a lower rate of people with ALS these countries include Mexico, Poland and Italy.

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People with ALS lives has been improving a bit with the new teacher that is being found out about it but this diese still is hard for families and individuals. Today about 10 percent of patients live over ten years after being diagnosed. Twenty live up to five years and more. Then fifty percent of pantion live three years or more. However 80 percent of passion die between two and five years after diagnostic. No one for sure know how ALS caused and who can be expected to get ALS. In most cases about 90 to 95 percent of them do not have a known cause. Some teachers are looking at different thing that they believe may be the cause of ALS. One belief it that is a gene mutation. They found out that various genetic mutations can lead to inherited ALS. This causes nearly the same symptoms as the non inherited form. Then there is chemical imbalances that they are looking at, people with ALS generally have higher level of glutamate. Glutamate is a chemical messenger in the brain and is around the nerve cells in spinal fluid. Too much this chemical can be toxic to some nerve cells. They are also looking into disorganized immune response. This is when an individual immune system states eating there own normal cells. By this the body can start to kill it cell and may even kill itself. There evening looking at mishandling protein. Mishandled proteins within the nerve cells may lead to abnormal forms of proteins in these cells. By this it can cause nerve cells to be destroyed. They are also looking into smoking, Environmental toxin exposure and people in the military service. The diagnostic procedure for AlS is a complicated one.

There is not one test or one procedure used to diagnose ALS. It can take up to a year or more to be diagnosed with ALS. To diagnosis ALS lab testing will be done. This includes blood, unian and thyroid function test to be performed. Another thing that is used is Muscle and or never biopsy. Which is where a piece of tissues is removed from a living body and is examined to see if anything look out of the ordinary. A spinal tap can be done as well. This is when the fluid in the spinal cord is evaluated by withdrawing some of that fluid from the spain. X-rays, MRI, and electro diagnostic test could and most likely be done as well to look at the muscles. The signs and symptoms of AlS. The first symptoms of this disease can go unnoticed. However, when time passes on the symptoms become worse. The cell start to die muscles start to weaken and muscle control can stop working.Arm and legs and usually the first to be affected. The starter to become weaker and The indulge with this disease may not be able to hold their own weight up evationly and my not be able to move there arms.

Arm, shoulder, and the tongue can twitch and cramp. Feet and the ankle can start having less control and can not support one’s weight. Breathing can become short and shalwar. The individual may need help with brother further on with this disease. THey may have a hard time swallowing and also may aspirate or inhale food and saliva in the lungs and chock. Most of these people with ALS dis by respiratory failures. Someone with ALS can become paralyzed and may not be able to speak. However ALS normally does not affect the five sense. Which is seeing, hearing, smell, taste and touch along with those the ability to think. There are different types of ALS and each type has there own symtoms that can very. One of the most common ALS in the Classical ALS this ALS affects upper and lower motor neurons cells. It affect more than two-thirds of people who Have ALS. Primary Lateral Sclerosis also known as PLS is a type of ALS. It also the rarest of all the type. The upper neurons is affected first. The lower neurons may not be affected for another 2 years but it normal affects the upper neurons the most. Progressive Bulbar Palsy i also know as PBP. This type of ALS starts to affect spanking, chewing and clawing first due to lower motor neurons deteriorate. About one fourth of people with ALS will get this type of ALS. Progressive Muscular Atrophy also known as PMA. This type the lower motor neurons is affected first and in about two years the upper neurons can be affect or may not be affected at all. This type normal stay in the lower neron. The last type that is known is Familial. This is a hereditary type of ALS five to ten percent of people in the USA can be affected. It is a fifty chance that if a parent has this disease it can be passed down to the children. There is not a lot of treatment. There is no cure for this disease. There is a medication that adds three to two ,months to someone life however all the symptoms are still there. They can also take other drug but this is to help cope with physical pain or mental health. People who has ALS can develop depression and can have panic attacks. They can take a physical therapy, occupational therapy and ar rehabilitation therapy. This is to try to help prevent joints from becoming imbolo and to try to slow down muscles weakness and anatomy. Living with ALS can become very difficult to that individual and for the people around them.

Depending what type of ALS they have can have different effect. For they induvegele that need help breathing they may need a ventilation machine. They could also get An aneurysm diaphragm pacer system implanted in them that helps the diaphragm to move so the individual can breathe. There are also other thing that can be down to help with an indvical to breath. continuous positive airway pressure, bi-level positive airway pressure and tracheostomy are also some other thing that can help with people who need help breathing. When people start to lose the ability to speak they have to rely on technology and or other people to communicate for them. There also can be eating dificalcation. For these people the may need special cups and or silver where to eat and drink with. They may need a feeding tube or even go on a spection diet so they can eat. Cost of this disease can be very pricey. Medicare, equipment needed and even home health care can be expensive. It is important to look into health plan coverage and other programs for which an individual may be eligible for to help pay for the cost. Some of the thing that someone can look into is Social Security Disability, Medicare, Medicaid, and Veteran Affairs benefits.

Due to the fact more people are learning about ALS more reacher is being done to understand this diese and to stop it from affecting people lives. One group that is doing fresher for this disease is the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke or NINDS for short. They are the lead suporter of biomedical reaches in the world they look at the brain and nervous system. They are looking at the development and progress of this disease. They are also trying to figure out what people can be affected by ALS. They are looking into different thing they believe can be causes. One of theses is cellular defects. These scientists are trying to figure out how ALS- cause gene mutation and why it happens. They are trying to figure out how they mutation and have ir destruction of the neurons. TO do this they are using models to test this theory this includes fruit flies, zebrafish, and rodents. They found out that depending on what gene that it affect it affects a certain motor motion. THey also discovered that when a mutation motor neurons death and the defences in the cell because of this. Something they found is that that is affected is RNA molecules of processing and recycling of proteins is affect. They also found out some nerves cell can become inflamed and that can also play a big role in why the nerves cells die. They are also looking a stem cells. Saints would take blood and or skin form an indivagle with ALS and turn them to stem cells. By this the cells can become any type of cell in the indivages body including motor cells. That can replace the the mutated cells.

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ALS has affect quite a few peoples lives one person that it was Lou Gehrig. Which the disease can also be known as the Lou gehrig disease. He was a famous baseball player who was diagnosed with ALS at the age of 36. He was played for the New York Yankee as a first baseman. He had a record that stood for 60 years. It was the most consecutive baseball games played. Cause of this record he was known as Iron name. He had to retire in 1939 and died in 1941 due to the disease. Another person who was affected by this disease was Stephen Hawking. He is the longest person who have ever lived with this disease. Against odds he has lived over 40 years with ALS and he is still alive. He was diagnosed at that age of 21 and was told he was going to die before his 25 birthday. He is now 76. He is a scientist and is known as one of the most intelligent man alive. There are many other peopel who has been affected Kevin Tuner who was an american football fullback for eight seasons for the New England Patratirce and Philidaphina Egles.Stephen Hillenburg. He was an american cartooniestg, animation and a former marien biologiest. He was the creatrer of the telivtion searise of spongebob squarpants. He also directed it, pruduced it and witten it. SPreading Awareness of this disease became a goal to many. Many people did not hear of it. So in 2014 a former baseball college student Pete Frates that was diagnosed with ALS in 2012 at the age of 29. He wanted to bring awareness and to help get more money for rashy=church so he started the Ice Bucket changed. So far over 1.2 million people participated in this challenge. The ice bucket change is where a bucket of ice water dumped over their head and then donate money to the cuse . Since July 29, 2014, the ALS Association national office reported collecting $13.3 million in donations in the USA and counting was in 2014.

Works Cited

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  2. Brown, R. H., & Al-Chalabi, A. (2017). Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. New England Journal of Medicine, 377(2), 162-172.
  3. Chiò, A., Calvo, A., Moglia, C., Mazzini, L., Mora, G., & PARALS study group. (2009). Phenotypic heterogeneity of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: A population based study. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry, 80(8), 853-858.
  4. Kiernan, M. C., Vucic, S., Cheah, B. C., Turner, M. R., Eisen, A., Hardiman, O., ... & Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis/ Motor Neuron Disease: Motor Neurophysiology of ALS Consensus Group. (2011). Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. The Lancet, 377(9769), 942-955.
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  6. Majoor-Krakauer, D., Ottman, R., Johnson, W. G., Rowland, L. P., & Amos, C. I. (2003). Familial aggregation of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, dementia, and Parkinson's disease: Evidence of shared genetic susceptibility. Annals of Neurology, 53(6), 769-775.
  7. Mitsumoto, H., & Bromberg, M. B. (2004). Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Oxford University Press.
  8. Peters, T. L., Weisser, V. D., Hentz, J. G., & Drachman, D. A. (2019). Motor neuron diseases. In Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine (20th ed., Vol. 2, pp. 2796-2812). McGraw-Hill.
  9. Talbott, E. O., Malek, A. M., Lacomis, D., The Epidemiology of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis, in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis, R. G. Miller, M. C. Kiernan, Eds. Wiley, Chichester, UK, 2012, pp. 17-40.
  10. Taylor, J. P., Brown, R. H., & Cleveland, D. W. (2016). Decoding ALS: From genes to mechanism. Nature, 539(7628), 197-206.
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Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. (2018, December 03). GradesFixer. Retrieved May 21, 2024, from
“Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.” GradesFixer, 03 Dec. 2018,
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. [online]. Available at: <> [Accessed 21 May 2024].
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