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Analysis of public governance of vocational education in Lebanon

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Vocational Education and Training system (VET) is a social mechanism that enables the distribution of knowledge, training, skills, work competencies, needs and values to all members of the society. Therefore the VET system restructuring, planning, underpins with latest global experiences, implementing, annually analysis is unavoidable to all beneficiary to emulate those countries precedence through this domain. we will concentrate our study on Methodology and description of VET in Lebanon. And analysis public governance of vocational education. Also to analyze and distinguish between the bet situation through a survey of Germany, Belarus as a case study to outcome an optimum mechanism that values to the labor market and the specialized ministries. Hence we may suggest a strategic plan to reach an optimize system, and issue a recommendation objectives , and strategic plan, model, factors, for the Government and Ministry of Education , Ministry of Labor, and the Director of the system in order to obtain an advanced and effective system , to provide the labor market with skilled anticipators and technician and raise the economic level of the country.

The general goal of vocational education is represented by currently updating in the structure, organization, and methods of the education system, and particularly in the content of the system and the ways of their implementation, also the influence of the trained student by involving them at the labor market, companies, and industrial sector aspects. We have searched an elaborate and a complete statistics data tables that illustrates the number of employee according to discordant vacant profession and to investigate whether these profession do cross ponds the global dedication, taking into account the sequential layout of the most advanced countries to integrate a strategic approaches into an entire plan to deduce a practical model emulate major industrial power for consolidating economic legislation with prospects afford. The VET system is shown in Fig1: However, this system is to be studied and modern approaches and implementations may be integrated inside. With the hint of Methodology of curriculum development in vocational and education, Dr minor, Iska Maksimovic, 2000).

In Germany VET system is the combination of a workplace-based apprenticeship with a classroom-based education. And all the system is managed by the Federal Government. Meanwhile, Belarus national TVET is managed by Ministry of Education (MoE), other republican institutions of state government and other state organizations under the authority of the Government, local executive, and administrative institutions.

Germany is the lowest unemployed among youth through Europe but Belarus labor market has not cured itself of its old illnesses. The state-run economy uses its financial and human resources inadequately and limits potential growth. While building industry demands people, many manufacturers need to fire some.

IN Germany the functioning of the VET system is a cooperation between many partners such as the federal government, regional governments, vocational schools, chambers, companies, labor unions. In Belarus, many partners such as institute, labor, labor market, companies, industrial section, and financial donors are corroborating too.
Both cases the causes of the failure to provide access to an initial training lie in the market mechanisms that govern the system.

Technical and updated programs are integrated into the VET in order to qualify well train labor to encourage industry and labor market, thus increasing the cost of economic through Germany. This integration is limited in Belarus.

An obvious cooperation between the VET system, universities, and companies all are plan and well control by the Government and specialized ministries.

Public governance of VET in Lebanon

The VET institutes and worked-base places are scattered and unfairly distributed through all the country as a clear decentralization in one place where the capital area has achieved the lion’s share allocation. The reason that the Government should pay a high-level attention to entire plan of vocational education and training related with the global concerning and the basic needs for vacant and a shortage of professionals in the labor market.

Lebanon TVET should launch a consolidated strategic plan, implementation, and more development objectives covering the education system’s role to achieve economic and social objectives. The plan must be annually and operationally updated and revised every four years.

A reasonably systematic set of procedures and processes that are based on principles of accountability, transparency, and effectiveness are to take place, in order to ensure that the behaviors and activities of all actors engaged in VET are in the targeted direction.

VET governance is too centralized. And the Ministry initiates policies, that has a role in major decision-making and acts as the main financier for public TVET system from Government revenue, and the minister is a strategic actor.

Technology integration has to be placed in a renewed emphasis which provides solid technical skills that are required by market demand. The area always worked aggressively with the local businesses to provide qualified applicants to meet the employment needs of the business community.

There should be a quickly and efficiently respond to the educational needs of their communities. Continually evaluate and improve instructions provide educational opportunities and simulate a real-life work environment to educate for the workforce.’

The idea was concluded and highlighted by Consultation on Technical and Vocational Education and Training in the Middle East and North Africa Workshop (Report Amman, 2016).

A highlight was extracted from the mapping vocational education and training, governance gemm for employability in the Mediterranean, European Union, 2016.
The Government should identify clearly the respective roles, responsibility, and accountability of the Ministry, Director, and the diverse ministries and public-sector units that have a central role in the management and leadership of VET systems and reforms.

A coordinated and agreed vision for human resource development should be developed involving all actors; a stronger involvement of the business sector and the civil society should be sought to engage them in the whole VET cycle, planning, implementation, monitoring, and evaluation. (Lebanon country strategy paper 2017)

MEHE should consider with its government partners how best to make financing and funding methods, procedures and reporting more transparent, with a view to ensuring sufficient funds and a more appropriate sharing of responsibilities for management decision making with VET providers. Funding mechanisms should also consider allocation based on results of the VET provision rather than on the number of students only.

MEHE should now activate the Higher Council for VTE engage with employers and their organizations more systematically, and to bring other member organizations into formal, organized dialogue. The modus operandi of the Higher Council for VTE should be negotiated with its members so that it can act as the umbrella for a partnership-based approach to VTE governance.

Employers’ organizations, Chambers, etc. should review their policies on identifying labor market needs and on education and training policy, and they should analyze carefully how to build up their organizational capacity to deal with these issues. They should accord continuing training higher priority in terms of planning and provision.
The trade union federations should consider how they might be better prepared in terms of policy and organization to be partners in VTE governance. They should make a strong case for continuing training to be given a higher priority.

Germany vocational education and training system case study.

The post-secondary education system in Germany is divided into two domains, the academic and the vocational. The dual system of VET has been the feature of vocational education in Germany. This system is the combination of a workplace-based apprenticeship with a classroom-based education. Practical training allows apprentices to acquire a solid foundation of market-relevant skills for their professional future while studying at a vocational school allows them to investigate the scientific and theoretical aspects of their trade. (Muehlemann & Wolter, 2014).

The outcome of skilled workers, allowing employers to save on hiring costs, contributing to youth employability and supporting individuals in their transition into the labor market. In order to ensure that VET contributes to the desired goals, VET is governed by a comprehensive legal framework that includes national and mandatory standards that must be followed by federal states. The functioning of VET system, therefore, rests on the cooperation between many partners, especially with regard to the definition of complementary study and apprenticeship contents, the coordination of alternating learning locations and regular updates of curriculum and quality standards according to market demands.
Another cooperation between partners and stakeholders of the VET. Cooperation between employers, vocational schools and other social partners Cooperation between partners and stakeholders is a key element of VET. Cooperation is particularly important in the process of defining the number of apprenticeship spots that are offered each year, in the delivery of training and instruction, and in the final examination and awarding of the diploma. In addition, cooperation is essential to quality assurance within the system and in the updating mechanisms that match curricular contents and standards to labor market demands. (Federal Institute for Vocational Education and Training [BIBB], 2015).

Political actors and market demand

Federal Government underpins the process of quality assurance and the way in which curricula are adapted to meet market demand. The most important actors at the federal level are the Federal Ministry of Education and Research and the Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy. The First is generally responsible for monitoring how the system is functioning, while the latter is mostly responsible for the work-based side of dual VET. The system of vocational education in Germany is underpinned by a structure of intense cooperation. Social partners must reach an agreement on vocational education policy. Consensus between stakeholders increases the acceptability of vocational training, although it may also be an obstacle to reform and innovation. Working together, stakeholders help secure the many positive benefits that the system produces. (Rindfleisch & Maennig-Fortmann, 2015).

The VET system challenges

Challenges facing the dual system of vocational education the first indication that all may not be well with the German VET system has come from the steady decrease in participation rates for dual apprenticeships. While it may seem paradoxical against the backdrop of a decreasing population of apprentices, the dual VET system in Germany is also facing a challenge of accessibility and satisfaction of demand. Every year around 150,000 youths fail to engage in initial vocational training, moving into the job market without any kind of completed post-secondary education.

Given this potential workforce gap, the importance of Germany’s vocational training system cannot be over-estimated. Decreasing participation in dual VET and the failure of the system to provide access to many youths interested in a vocational program are therefore serious problems that affect the whole of the national economy as well as society at large. If dual VET is to meet these challenges, it must be made flexible enough to adapt to today’s educational, social and economic context. (BMBF, 2014)

Germany’s dual system of vocational education and training is highly acknowledged.

With the lowest youth unemployment rate in Europe 6.7% in 2017, Germany’s dual VET system is highly recognized abroad. The majority of their workforce received its high qualification through the dual VET-system. The dual VET-system is an integral part of the general education and training system in Germany. Where training takes place both in firms and public training schools. The dual education, German companies turn apprentices into customized specialists at low net costs through in-house training. While there is a close partnership among all social partners. The dual VET-system is strongly integrated into the German economy and society. So dual study programs are on the rise. Fig2: (Clemens Wieland, and Eduard Lezcano, 2016). Statistics was viewed from http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/statistics.

Vocational education and training policy in Belarus

The goals and principles of the state policy of the Republic of Belarus on vocational education are aimed at its democratization, continuation, and concern for the interests of the individual. Fig3. The Council of Ministers of the Republic of Belarus made provision for the introduction of a new List of Integrated Teaching Specialisms, which would be multi-profile and flexible in available choice of models of vocational education and training at regional and local levels, and assure the continuity of educational curriculum for vocational training at different levels, implementing of an individually centered approach, provision of social partnership in vocational education; Introduction of information technology into the management of teaching establishments and the educational process; Monitoring teaching staff needs; management of the quality of training for employees and specialists, based on educational standards and a special system of control indicators. Intake into state vocational education and training establishments is via agreements with enterprises and organizations.
Responsible organizations, including social partners two opposite trends, were typical of the management of vocational education in Belarus, the trend to centralization and to decentralization.

The logic behind the devolution of authority to different management levels was driven by the importance of the goals to be achieved. But the most pronounced trend in vocational education and training management was the tendency to decentralize and to transfer many functions from the Education Ministry to regional bodies and educational institutions. The most important aspect of this delegation of authority to lower management levels was firstly the transfer of financial provision for vocational colleges from the Republic Budget to regional budgets and secondly the transfer of Republic property to ownership at the regional level. At present, the regional management level is the legal subject of vocational education and training property and financial resources. The vocational education and training institution is itself the awarding body of the funds and property allocated to it. Unfortunately, there still has been no special law for the allocation of management functions to different education levels, and these are therefore regulated under general Republic legislation. Further, there has been a firming up of the trend to centralize the management of vocational education. Today, the following functions are part of the management remit. (The National Observatory of Belarus, 2001)

The mapping and further analysis of VET governance in Lebanon which is illuminated with the global footsteps in this domain lead to a number of recommendations to support the design, plan, implement and keep under review further action and reform. Because the system concerns governance specifically, the recommendations refer to aspects of governance. These have implications for the efficiency and effectiveness of the VET system as a whole, but the recommendations attempt to keep governance clearly in the frame. Consolidating the government’s strategic approach to VTE governance.

We conclude that the level of the theoretical knowledge had to be improved and the practice must focus and purposefulness strengthened. Another conclusion is the need to set up regional tertiary colleges and, through them, offer specialists appropriate higher education and reinforcement of their practical focus. A model specialist] was developed.

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