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In 18th century mathematics was already become a part of modern science. Mathematics begins to develop very fast because of it’s introduction to schools. Therefore everyone have a chance to learn the basic fundamentals of mathematicsIn 21st century mathematics is used In robotics In space research In sports In Biological calculation In field of information technology etc. Even those suffering from math-related anxieties or phobias cannot escape its everyday presence in their lives. From home to school to work and places in between, math is everywhere.
Whether using measurements in a recipe or deciding if half a tank of gas will make the destination, we all use math. It is a good idea, therefore, for teachers and parents of reluctant math learners to use real-world examples to ignite a spark of practical interest.
Students can’t avoid math. Most take it every day. However, even in history and English classes they may need to know a little math. Whether looking at time expanses of decades, centuries or eras or calculating how they’ll bring that B in English to an A, they’ll need some basic math skills. Jobs in business and finance may require sophisticated knowledge of how to read profit and earning statements or how to decipher graph analyses.
However, even hourly earners will need to know if their working hours multiplied by their rate of pay accurately reflects their paychecks.
Many mathematical and statistical applications are yet to be improved to take into account of the intrinsic complexities in finance and related fields. Many of the statistical tests it seems do not sufficiently discriminate.
For example, statistical tests usually fail to contradict the random-walk hypothesis for prices. It is certain that more work is needed to cope with the large effects of noise in financial time series analysis. A number other aspects it seems needs work such as the assumption that participants act rationally and aim to maximize returns. The work on neural psychology and behavioural finance may help provide significant insights and advances in thinking. It is certain that if all of the above are incorporated into the modeling process a higher level of mathematics will be required to deal with aspects such as “real” market participants, ideas of random walks, market interdependencies, correlations, and so on. Tularam, G. A. (2013). Mathematics in finance and economics: importance of teaching higher order mathematical thinking skills in finance. e-Journal of Business Education and Scholarship of Teaching, 7(1), 43-73.
Materials sciences is concerned with the synthesis and manufacture of new materials, the modification of materials, the understanding and prediction of material properties, and the evolution and control of these properties over a time period. Until recently, materials science was primarily an empirical study in metallurgy, ceramics, and plastics. Today it is a vast growing body of knowledge based on physical sciences, engineering, and mathematics. For example, mathematical models are emerging quite reliable in the synthesis and manufacture of polymers. Some of these models are based on statistics or statistical mechanics and others are based on a diffusion equation in finite or infinite dimensional spaces.
Simpler but more phenomenological models of polymers are based on Continuum Mechanics with added terms to account for ‘memory. ’ Stability and singularity of solutions are important issues for materials scientists. The mathematics is still lacking even for these simpler models. Another example is the study of the formation of cracks in materials. When a uniform elastic body is subjected to high pressure, cracks will form. Where and how the cracks initiate, how they evolve, and when they branch out into several cracks are questions that are still being researched.
Mathematical models are also emerging in the biological and medical sciences. For example in physiology, consider the kidney. One million tiny tubes around the kidney, called nephrons, have the task of absorbing salt from the blood into the kidney. They do it through contact with blood vessels by a transport process in which osmotic pressure and filtration play a role. Biologists have identified the body tissues and substances, which are involved in this process, but the precise rules of the process, are only barely understood. A simple mathematical model of the renal process shed some light on the formation of urine and on decisions made by the kidney on whether, for example, to excrete a large volume of diluted urine or a small volume of concentrated urine. A more complete model may include PDE, stochastic equations, fluid dynamics, elasticity theory, filtering theory, and control theory, and perhaps other tools.
Other topics in physiology where recent mathematical studies have already made some progress include heart dynamics, calcium dynamics, the auditory process, cell adhesion and motility (vital for physiological processes such as inflammation and wound healing) and biofluids. Other areas where mathematics is poised to make important progress include the growth process in general and embryology in particular, cell signaling, immunology, emerging and reemerging infectious diseases, and ecological issues such as global phenomena in vegetation, modeling animal grouping and the human brain.
The mathematics of multimedia encompasses a wide range of research areas, which include computer vision, image processing, speech recognition and language understanding, computer aided design, and new modes of networking. The mathematical tools in multimedia may include stochastic processes, Markov fields, statistical patterns, decision theory, PDE, numerical analysis, graph theory, graphic algorithms, image analysis and wavelets, and many others. Computer aided design is becoming a powerful tool in many industries. This technology is a potential area for research mathematicians. The future of the World Wide Web (www) will depend on the development of many new mathematical ideas and algorithms, and mathematicians will have to develop ever more secure cryptographic schemes and thus new developments from number theory, discrete mathematics, algebraic geometry, and dynamical systems, as well as other fields.
Recent trends in mathematics research in the USA Army have been influenced by lessons learnt during combat in Bosnia. The USA army could not bring heavy tanks in time and helicopters were not used to avoid casualty. Also there is need for lighter systems with same or improved requirement as before. Breakthroughs are urgently needed and mathematics research is being funded with a hope to get the urgently needed systems. These future automated systems are complex and nonlinear, they will likely be multiple units, small in size, light in weight, very efficient in energy utilization and extremely fast in speed and will likely be self organized and self coordinated to perform special tasks.
During the last 50 years, developments in mathematics, in computing and communication technologies have made it possible for most of the breath taking discoveries in basic sciences, for the tremendous innovations and inventions in engineering sciences and technology and for the great achievements and breakthroughs in economics and life sciences. These have led to the emergency of many new areas of mathematics and enabled areas that were dormant to explode. Now every branch of mathematics has a potential for applicability in other fields of mathematics and other disciplines. All these, have posed a big challenge on the mathematics curricula at all levels of the education systems, teacher preparation and pedagogy. The 21st Century mathematics thinking is to further strengthen efforts to bridge the division lines within mathematics, to open up more for other disciplines and to foster the line of inter-discipline research.
A lot of teens do not have bank accounts, but you still do banking. You need to know how to manage your allowances so that you can afford the best that you can get on what you have. Otherwise you may find yourself without money for the essentials like stationery after buying the luxuries like ice cream. Mathematics in GardeningEven doing something as mundane as gardening requires a basic maths skill. If you need to plant or sow new seeds or seedlings you need to make a row or count them out or even make holes. So even without thinking you are doing maths. Measuring skills is always needed, and calculations are important when doing something new in the garden.
Whatever you do in the kitchen requires maths, like counting the number of teaspoons of sugar that are just right for you in your tea or coffee or complicated cooking and baking. Even just using the stove, microwave and kettle is basic maths skills in action.
Some people aren’t even out of bed before encountering math. When setting an alarm or hitting snooze, they may quickly need to calculate the new time they will rise. Or they might step on a bathroom scale and decide that they’ll skip those extra calories at lunch. People on medication need to understand different dosages, whether in grams or milliliters. Recipes call for ounces and cups and teaspoons — all measurements, all math. And decorators need to know that the dimensions of their furnishings and rugs will match the area of their rooms.
Travelers often consider their miles per gallon when fueling up for daily trips, but they might need to calculate anew when faced with obstructionist detours and consider the additional cost in miles, time and money. Air travelers need to know departure times and arrival schedules. They also need to know the weight of their luggage, unless they want to risk some hefty baggage surcharges. Once on board, they might enjoy some common aviation-related math such as speed, altitude and flying time.
Whether buying coffee or a car, basic principles of math are in play. Purchasing decisions require some understanding of budgets and the cost and affordability of items from groceries to houses. Short-term decisions may mean only needing to know cash on hand, but bigger purchases may require knowledge of interest rates and amortization charts. Finding a mortgage may be much different from choosing a place to have lunch, but they both cost money and require math.
Professionals in the medical field use math to determine proper doses for patients’ medicine, read results from CAT scans, MRIs and X-rays and to evaluate body mass index. Physicians, nurses and others in the medical industry use mathematics on a daily basis in hospitals and offices and when performing research. Math plays a crucial role in health, as it allows for the safe administration of painkillers and antibiotics and ensures appropriate treatment and diagnoses. Medicine Both doctors and nurses use math every day while providing health care for people around the world. Doctors and nurses use math when they write prescriptions or administer medication.
Medical professionals use math when drawing up statistical graphs of epidemics or success rates of treatments. Math applies to x-rays and CAT scans. Numbers provide an abundance of information for medical professionals. It is reassuring for the general public to know that our doctors and nurses have been properly trained by studying mathematics and its uses for medicine.
Fertilizers are needed to harvest products in optimum quantity. In order to provide optimum levels to the plant of concern, you should know levels of elements available in your soil. Nitrogen and phosphorus are two fertilizers that should be supplied by fertilizers. NH4 (ammonium ion) plus NO3 (nitrate) increased wheat yields 7 to 47% in 14 studies. Animal manures and other types of organic waste may be important sources of nitrogen for optimum plant growth. The amount of nitrogen supplied by application of manure varies with the type of livestock, handling, rate (pounds per acre) applied, and method of application. Because the nitrogen form and content of manures varies notably, an analysis of manure is recommended to improve nitrogen management. Optimum levels should be know. Another applciation is irrigation water quality such as sodium adsorption ratio (SAR or adjusted SAR) to compute your irrigation water quality. There are formulas developed to compute SAR or adj SAR.
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