About this sample
About this sample
Words: 1250 |
7 min read
Published: Aug 1, 2022
Words: 1250|Pages: 3|7 min read
The colonization history of America can be named as one of the most notable formations of any country across the world. Powers such as, the Great Britain, Spain and France played important roles in formation of what we call today as the powerful United states of America. Even though Portugal and Netherlands also possessed few colonies in the newly discovered wilderness, they weren’t as much as powerful as France, Spain and Britain (Sullivan, 2021). However, nowadays, the majority of people remember the English colonial endeavors above everything else (Knowledgia, 2021).
With the intention of finding new trade routes to Asia, the European kingdoms such as Portugal and Spain started sending ships on voyages during the 15th century. And the world changed forever in 1492 with the discovery of land in the Western Hemisphere by the crusader Christopher Columbus who served for the king and queen of Spain. His purpose was not to find a great republic to be found but, he ended up discovering an alien wilderness land, a new world, the North America. The coast of China and India was closed to the discovered land therefore, he called the people he encountered as Indians. In other words, the original possessors of the land were the native Indian tribes ('Britannica School', n.d.). With the discovery of the new world, other European powers, Netherlands, Portugal, France, and Britain also had a competition to conquer the land for power and wealth. Spanish colonists explored the items such as cocoa, potatoes, tobacco and etc. that are not found in Europe and also the ships carrying gold, pearls, and emeralds return to Spain, prompting many colonists to migrate to the new world. They brought crops and domestic animals in return. Beside the trading activities they also brought deadly diseases such as small pox that were previously unknown to the indigenous inhabitants, leaving them vulnerable. These illnesses swept over the continent faster than the colonists could control them, wiping out whole communities. However, in 1506 Christopher Columbus dies following his fourth voyage. After a few months, the discovered continent was named as America, in honor of the explorer Amerigo Vespucci (Geo History, 2021).
When talking about the English settlers, they were the most successful out of the other settlers in North America. Nearly majority of the 13 colonies on the Atlantic coast were created by the English, and they eventually seized control of the others ('Britannica School', n.d.). In 1600s the first permanent English settlement was established at Jamestown, Virginia. Plymouth was the second English colony which was established in 1620 and what is now called Massachusetts. Along the line the rest of the English colonies such as Maryland, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, Connecticut, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia and Pennsylvania were also established by Britain. As mentioned, colonies such as New York, New Jersey and Delaware which were colonized by other settlers were conquered by English in 1660s. The main Purpose of Britain to colonize the new world was not solely based on the trade routes, power and wealth. They rapidly built permanent settlements in the New World due to a different reason. For the British, religion was a major motivator. In 1620, a party of English pilgrims unintentionally sailed to Plymouth of new world to escape religious oppression. The pilgrims then made a social contract whereas every person had a role in the government, and this can be named as an example of the American self-government. Furthermore, these pilgrims thought the England church was dishonest and that in the New World, they would be allowed to worship according to their own beliefs. They were the first pilgrims to sail all the way to America and many more came after them. They were involved in shipbuilding, fishing and lumbering and also, they developed a variety of materials. Moreover, rice, tobacco and indigo were grown in colonies further south. All of this was beneficial to the Britain (Society, 2020).
However, the relations between the newly established colonies and the native Americans, on the other hand, worsened over time. Some of the issues were accidentally introduced by the colonists, such as smallpox and other illnesses carried over on the ships by the English immigrants. In addition to that, native Americans were shipped out to other countries like Canada by the colonists as a result of slave trade. Also, they were forced for conversions and mass baptisms. The native Americans were abused and treated unfairly by the colonists and as a result their faith over the colonists were shattered (Society, n.d.).
The rivalry between the two European powers, Britain and France was a global conflict which occurred between 1763 and 1754.This war is also known as the Seven-years’ war and the French and Indian war. By this time, British had control over the 13 colonies while French had claimed the great lakes and Canada. This conflict of The France and Britain was erupted over the question of whether the upper Ohio River valley was part of the British Empire, and so available to commerce and colonization by Virginians and Pennsylvanians, or part of the French Empire. The early armed engagements did not go well for England; the French built Fort Duquesne and frequently beat the British with the help of their Native American allies. The war was formally declared when the governor of Virginia dispatched George Washington, then 21, to warn the French to stay away from the territory what we call today as Pittsburg, but they denied. Several attempts were taken by the British to dominate the territory but things didn’t go well for them for the first few years of the war ('Seven Years’ War', 2009). However, in 1759 the tables turned in favor of the British after they finally seized Duquesne, Louisburg and Ticonderoga forts of the French. The British triumphed against the French at the Plains of Abraham near Quebec in September, and it was the largest victory of all. The next year, Montreal bowed out. Furthermore, the French and the Indian war was formally extended for three more years (Crash Course, 2013).
After the gaining the victory from the French and Indian war, Britain became an international power with a powerful fleet, which they would exploit to expand their empire throughout the world. However, the relationship between the native Americans and the English got worse when the British government decided that colonies should help them coverup the debts of the war. Taxes such stamp act and sugar act were implemented by the British with the intension of increasing their revenue. Not only that but also, they started exerting more authority over colonial administrations. But the colonies were able to view their own independence as a result of their early self-governing system. Above mentioned factors led the native Americans to the American revolution in 1775. France also helped native Americans in the revolutionary war against the British. In 1783, the American revolution came to a conclusion with the Treaty of Paris, and colonialism in America came to an end (Society, 2021).
To sum up everything that has been stated so far, the United States of America wouldn’t have become a powerful nation if not for the European settlers. Even though the settlers clashed in deadly warfare, they contributed a lot to develop the current united states. But the native Americans didn’t fail to stand up and fight for their own rights and free the nation from the Great Britain.
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