Pssst… we can write an original essay just for you.
Any subject. Any type of essay.
We’ll even meet a 3-hour deadline.
121 writers online
The most common type of kidney stones worldwide contains calcium. They typically contain calcium oxalate either alone or in combination with calcium phosphate in the form of apatite or brushite. Factors that promote the precipitation of oxalate crystals in the urine, such as primary hyperoxaluria, are associated with the development of calcium oxalate stones. The formation of calcium phosphate stones is associated with conditions such as hyperparathyroidism and renal tubular acidosis. Oxaluria is increased in patients with certain gastrointestinal disorders including inflammatory bowel disease such as Crohn disease or patients who have undergone resection of the small bowel or small bowel bypass procedures. Oxaluria is also increased in patients who consume increased amounts of oxalate (found in vegetables and nuts). Primary hyperoxaluria is a rare autosomal recessive condition which usually presents in childhood. Calcium oxalate stones appear as ‘envelopes’ microscopically. They may also form ‘dumbbells.’
About 10–15% of urinary calculi are composed of struvite (ammonium magnesium phosphate, NH4MgPO4•6H2O). Struvite stones (also known as “infection stones”, urease or triple-phosphate stones), form most often in the presence of infection by urea splitting bacteria. Using the enzyme urease, these organisms metabolize urea into ammonia and carbon dioxide. This alkalinizes the urine, resulting in favorable conditions for the formation of struvite stones.
Proteus mirabilis, Proteus vulgaris, and Morganella morganii are the most common organisms isolated; less common organisms include Ureaplasma urealyticum, and some species of Providencia, Klebsiella, Serratia, and Enterobacter. These infection stones are commonly observed in people who have factors that predispose them to urinary tract infections, such as those with spinal cord injury and other forms of neurogenic bladder, ileal conduit urinary diversion, vesicoureteral reflux, and obstructive uropathies. They are also commonly seen in people with underlying metabolic disorders, such as idiopathic hypercalciuria, hyperparathyroidism, and gout.
Infection stones can grow rapidly, forming large calyceal staghorn (antler-shaped) calculi requiring invasive surgery such as percutaneous nephrolithotomy for definitive treatment. Struvite stones (triple phosphate/magnesium ammonium phosphate) have a “coffin lid” morphology by microscopy.
About 5–10% of all stones are formed from uric acid. People with certain metabolic abnormalities, including obesity, may produce uric acid stones. They also may form in association with conditions that cause hyperuricosuria (an excessive amount of uric acid in the urine) with or without hyperuricemia (an excessive amount of uric acid in the serum). They may also form in association with disorders of acid/base metabolism where the urine is excessively acidic (low pH), resulting in precipitation of uric acid crystals. A diagnosis of uric acid urolithiasis is supported by the presence of a radiolucent stone in the face of persistent urine acidity, in conjunction with the finding of uric acid crystals in fresh urine samples. As noted above (section on calcium oxalate stones), patients with inflammatory bowel disease (Crohn’s disease, ulcerative colitis) tend to have hyperoxaluria and form oxalate stones. These patients also have a tendency to form urate stones. Urate stones are especially common after colon resection. Uric acid stones appear as pleomorphic crystals, usually diamond-shaped. They may also look like squares or rods which are polarizable.
People with certain rare inborn errors of metabolism have a propensity to accumulate crystal forming substances in their urine. For example, those with cystinuria, cystinosis, and Fanconi syndrome may form stones composed of cystine. Cystine stone formation can be treated with urine alkalinization and dietary protein restriction. People afflicted with xanthinuria often produce stones composed of xanthine. People afflicted with adenine phosphoribosyltransferase deficiency may produce 2,8-dihydroxyadenine stones, alkaptonurics produce homogentisic acid stones, and iminoglycinurics produce stones of glycine, proline and hydroxyproline. Urolithiasis has also been noted to occur in the setting of therapeutic drug use, with crystals of drug forming within the renal tract in some people currently being treated with agents such as indinavir, sulfadiazine and triamterene.
Urolithiasis refers to stones originating anywhere in the urinary system, including the kidneys and bladder. Nephrolithiasis refers to the presence of such calculi in the kidneys. Calyceal calculi refers to aggregations in either the minor or major calyx, parts of the kidney that pass urine into the ureter (the tube connecting the kidneys to the urinary bladder). The condition is called ureterolithiasis when a calculus is located in the ureter. Stones may also form or pass into the bladder, a condition referred to as cystolithiasis.
We provide you with original essay samples, perfect formatting and styling
To export a reference to this article please select a referencing style below:
Sorry, copying is not allowed on our website. If you’d like this or any other sample, we’ll happily email it to you.
Attention! this essay is not unique. You can get 100% plagiarism FREE essay in 30sec
Sorry, we cannot unicalize this essay. You can order Unique paper and our professionals Rewrite it for you
Your essay sample has been sent.
Want us to write one just for you? We can custom edit this essay into an original, 100% plagiarism free essay.Order now
Are you interested in getting a customized paper?Check it out!