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This experiment is to analyze kidney filtration by using simple filtration system. In this experiment, the protein, glucose and starch were used as tested substances. The procedure is repeated as the first experiment was as standard solution for second experiment. One of the test tube is special, which was test tube 4. It was used as standard solution for test tube 1, test tube 2 and test tube 3. Among the tested substances, some of the compound passed through the filter paper while some did not. Protein and glucose able to pass through the filter paper but starch cannot passed through the filter paper. Starch was a big molecule compound so it cannot passed through filter paper which was semi-permeable. Protein and glucose able to pass through the filter paper because they were smaller compared to starch. The results were observed and recorded after the experiment. The color of intensity before filtration and after filtration is different. The color were different because the filtrate were more than or less than the tested substances before filtration. The color that observed is similar for substances before filtration and after filtration, it were difficult to judge the color. The color should use a color chart to judge for more accuracy. The filtration experiment was like kidney function. The tested substances were as molecule in the kidney that needed to filtrate. The filter paper was semi-permeable that was liked kidney membrane that was also semi-permeable. The color intensity of test tube before filtration and after filtration were the substances or molecules in the kidney that needed for filtration. Nephron is the basic functional unit of a kidney. Each nephron was made up of Bowman’s capsule, glomerulus, proximal convoluted tubule, the Loop of Henle, distal convoluted tubule and collecting duct. Glomerulus was a network of capillary enclosed by the Bowman’s capsule. The afferent arteriole supplied the blood into the glomerulus, the efferent arterioles carried blood from glomerulus into second capillary network surrounding the proximal convoluted tubule. Proximal convoluted tubule reabsorbed ions, water and nutrients. The Loop of Henle has descending limb and ascending limb. Descending limb of Loop of Henle only permeable to water, water will diffused out by osmosis but sodium ions, potassium ions and chlorine ions did not actively pumped out. The ascending limb of Loop of Henle only permeable to salt, sodium ions, potassium ions and chlorine ions were actively pumped out but water did not diffused out by osmosis. The water, sodium ions, potassium ions, chlorine ions were diffused into vasa recta and carried away. Distal convoluted tubule reabsorbed NaCl and HCO3-, the potassium ions and hydrogen ions were actively pumped out. The collecting duct reabsorbed water by osmosis and the amount of water was regulated by antidiuretic hormone (ADH). Mammals needed to get rid of the excretory products because if the waste product allowed stayed in cells, it may be toxic or poisonous to cells.
The experiment of the filtration system liked filtration system in kidney may not be accurate. The color intensity of before filtration and after filtration were too similar so the color intensity might judge wrong. The experiment should repeated few times and used a color chart to judge the color of the solution.
5. College Biology, Kamaludin bin A. Rashul, Kamariah bt. Haron, Mahanom bt. Jalil, Nor Azlina bt. Abd. Aziz, Published 2012, Chapter 9 Homeostasis, 9.3 Homeostatic Organ: Liver and Kidney, page 183-189
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