Environmental Probelms in Pakistan: Issues in The Big Cities

About this sample

About this sample


Words: 1274 |

Pages: 3|

7 min read

Published: Jan 4, 2019

Words: 1274|Pages: 3|7 min read

Published: Jan 4, 2019

Table of contents

  1. Introduction
  2. Air Pollution: A Suffocating Crisis
  3. Water Scarcity: A Precious Resource Under Threat
  4. Solid Waste Management
  5. Urban Heat Islands
  6. Noise Pollution
  7. Deforestation and Green Space Loss
  8. Conclusion
  9. References


Pakistan, a nation characterized by its rich cultural heritage and diverse landscapes, is grappling with a growing concern – the environmental challenges plaguing its big cities. As these urban centers continue to swell with rapid population expansion, industrialization, and inadequate infrastructure, a confluence of factors has contributed to the emergence of pressing environmental problems in Pakistan. This essay delves into these challenges, examining their root causes, far-reaching consequences, and potential solutions, with the aim of spotlighting the need for immediate action.

'Why Violent Video Games Shouldn't Be Banned'?

Air Pollution: A Suffocating Crisis

Among the most insidious threats to Pakistan's big cities is the menacing shroud of air pollution. The thick smog that engulfs cities like Lahore and Karachi, often referred to as "Airpocalypses," is a result of vehicular emissions, industrial processes, and the wanton burning of solid waste and crop residue. The ever-expanding fleet of vehicles, especially outdated and poorly maintained ones, remains a chief contributor to the surge in air pollution. Such a grim scenario reflects the stark consequences of rapid urbanization without commensurate efforts to curb pollution.

The ramifications of rampant air pollution are manifold. High levels of airborne pollutants have translated into a public health crisis, with increased cases of respiratory diseases, cardiovascular ailments, and a surge in mortality rates. Moreover, the relentless smog obstructs visibility, leading to frequent accidents on the roadways. The agriculture sector also bears the brunt, as air pollution disrupts crop cycles, negatively impacting yields. These adverse effects on health, safety, and the economy underscore the urgency of addressing air pollution.

To mitigate air pollution, Pakistan must embark on multifaceted strategies. Stricter emission standards for vehicles, coupled with investments in public transportation, are imperative. Promotion of clean energy sources and renewable technologies can help diminish the reliance on fossil fuels. Furthermore, stringent regulation of industrial emissions, coupled with robust enforcement of anti-open burning laws, represents crucial steps in tackling this perilous issue.

Water Scarcity: A Precious Resource Under Threat

Water scarcity poses another formidable challenge, particularly in urban areas of Pakistan. This scarcity arises from multiple factors, including the over-extraction of groundwater, pollution of surface water sources, and the inadequacy of water supply and sanitation infrastructure. The mismanagement of this finite resource jeopardizes not only the present but also the future well-being of urban communities.

The consequences of water scarcity are deeply troubling. Communities lacking access to clean water sources are vulnerable to waterborne diseases, further exacerbating public health woes. The agricultural sector also grapples with diminished water resources, hampering productivity and perpetuating food insecurity. Furthermore, the lack of access to clean water leads many urban dwellers to rely on unregulated sources, putting their health at greater risk.

To alleviate water scarcity, Pakistan must adopt a comprehensive approach. Sustainable groundwater management, investments in water infrastructure, and the promotion of water-efficient practices are pivotal. Implementing stringent regulations to prevent industrial pollution of water sources is equally vital. Education and awareness campaigns must be employed to encourage responsible water use among citizens.

Solid Waste Management

The ever-growing urban population in Pakistan has ushered in an onslaught of solid waste, yet many cities lack proper waste management infrastructure and practices. Open dumping and the burning of waste materials remain commonplace, casting a pall over the urban landscape.

The consequences of improper waste disposal are both visible and invisible. The environment bears the brunt, with soil and water pollution, environmental degradation, and increased prevalence of diseases. Moreover, the aesthetic and hygienic conditions of cities deteriorate, discouraging tourism, and hindering economic activities. The multifaceted impact of this predicament highlights the urgent need for action.

Addressing solid waste management entails a paradigm shift. Developing efficient waste collection and disposal systems, alongside promoting recycling and waste-to-energy initiatives, are vital. Public awareness campaigns must educate citizens on the importance of responsible waste management and recycling practices. Enforcement of regulations to deter open dumping and burning of waste is equally essential.

Urban Heat Islands

In many of Pakistan's large cities, the urban heat island effect intensifies the impact of rising temperatures. Extensive concrete and asphalt surfaces, limited green spaces, and the heat generated by industrial and vehicular activities contribute to this phenomenon. The result: urban areas that swelter under oppressive heat.

The consequences of urban heat islands are far-reaching. High temperatures in cities lead to increased energy consumption for cooling, straining power resources and exacerbating heat-related illnesses. The vulnerability of certain populations, such as the elderly and children, is heightened. Moreover, the urban heat island effect has detrimental effects on cognitive development in children and reduces the overall quality of life.

To mitigate urban heat islands, urban planning must prioritize green spaces, tree planting, and cool roofing. Promoting energy-efficient building designs and the use of public transportation can reduce heat emissions. Moreover, public awareness campaigns can educate citizens on ways to adapt to and mitigate the effects of urban heat islands.

Noise Pollution

Noise pollution in big cities across Pakistan is a growing concern. The constant din of traffic congestion, construction activities, and industrial processes disrupts the tranquility of urban life. The absence of noise control regulations exacerbates this auditory assault on the senses.

The consequences of noise pollution are multifaceted. It can lead to heightened stress levels, sleep disturbances, and various health issues, including hearing impairment. Cognitive development in children may be negatively impacted, and overall quality of life is compromised.

To address noise pollution, comprehensive measures are necessary. Implementing noise control regulations, zoning laws that separate noisy industries from residential areas, and enforcing strict noise pollution standards are crucial steps. Additionally, public awareness campaigns can educate citizens on the importance of reducing noise pollution in their communities.

Deforestation and Green Space Loss

Urban expansion often comes at the expense of green spaces and trees. The relentless march of construction necessitates the removal of trees and the obliteration of green havens. Illegal logging further contributes to the deforestation crisis.

The consequences of deforestation are profound. Reduced green spaces and the loss of trees diminish urban biodiversity, exacerbate air pollution, and intensify the urban heat island effect. Additionally, the absence of green areas hinders mental well-being by limiting opportunities for recreation and relaxation.

To combat deforestation, urban planning should prioritize the preservation of green spaces and the planting of trees. Strict enforcement of anti-deforestation laws is essential to curb illegal logging activities. Public awareness campaigns can also foster a greater appreciation for urban green spaces and promote conservation efforts.

Get a custom paper now from our expert writers.


The emerging environmental issues in Pakistan's big cities demand immediate attention, coordinated efforts, and holistic solutions. Sustainable urban planning, stricter regulations, and public awareness campaigns are paramount to tackling these challenges effectively. Collaboration between government bodies, civil society, and the private sector is indispensable to ensure a healthier, more sustainable urban environment for all Pakistanis. These issues are not merely matters of environmental conservation; they represent questions of public health, economic development, and the overall well-being of urban communities. Thus, addressing these concerns should stand as an imperative for a more promising and sustainable future for Pakistan's urban centers.


  1. World Health Organization (WHO). (2018). Ambient (outdoor) air quality and health. World Health Organization.
  2. UNICEF Pakistan. (2019). WASH in urban Pakistan: Key findings from a national study. UNICEF Pakistan.
  3. Siddiqui, A. H., & Ahmed, A. (2017). Solid waste management in Karachi. Environmental and Urbanization Asia, 8(2), 153-167.
  4. Heath, M., Vardoulakis, S., & Chalabi, Z. (2016). The urban heat island: Implications for health in a changing environment. Current Environmental Health Reports, 3(3), 281-292.
  5. Basner, M., Babisch, W., Davis, A., Brink, M., Clark, C., Janssen, S., & Stansfeld, S. (2014). Auditory and non-auditory effects of noise on health. The Lancet, 383(9925), 1325-1332.
  6. Hansen, R., & Pauleit, S. (2014). From multifunctionality to multiple ecosystem services? A conceptual framework for multifunctionality in green infrastructure planning for urban areas. AMBIO, 43(4), 516-529.
  7. Murtaza, G., Yasmin, A., & Qadir, M. (2017). Urbanization and environmental quality: Insights from Punjab, Pakistan. Sustainability, 9(2), 254.
Image of Alex Wood
This essay was reviewed by
Alex Wood

Cite this Essay

Environmental Probelms in Pakistan: Issues in The Big Cities. (2019, January 03). GradesFixer. Retrieved February 27, 2024, from
“Environmental Probelms in Pakistan: Issues in The Big Cities.” GradesFixer, 03 Jan. 2019,
Environmental Probelms in Pakistan: Issues in The Big Cities. [online]. Available at: <> [Accessed 27 Feb. 2024].
Environmental Probelms in Pakistan: Issues in The Big Cities [Internet]. GradesFixer. 2019 Jan 03 [cited 2024 Feb 27]. Available from:
Keep in mind: This sample was shared by another student.
  • 450+ experts on 30 subjects ready to help
  • Custom essay delivered in as few as 3 hours
Write my essay

Still can’t find what you need?

Browse our vast selection of original essay samples, each expertly formatted and styled


Where do you want us to send this sample?

    By clicking “Continue”, you agree to our terms of service and privacy policy.


    Be careful. This essay is not unique

    This essay was donated by a student and is likely to have been used and submitted before

    Download this Sample

    Free samples may contain mistakes and not unique parts


    Sorry, we could not paraphrase this essay. Our professional writers can rewrite it and get you a unique paper.



    Please check your inbox.

    We can write you a custom essay that will follow your exact instructions and meet the deadlines. Let's fix your grades together!


    Get Your
    Personalized Essay in 3 Hours or Less!

    We can help you get a better grade and deliver your task on time!
    • Instructions Followed To The Letter
    • Deadlines Met At Every Stage
    • Unique And Plagiarism Free
    Order your paper now