Exploring Behavioral Sciences, and Ethical Considerations in Research

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About this sample

About this sample


Words: 2016 |

Pages: 4|

11 min read

Published: Feb 13, 2024

Words: 2016|Pages: 4|11 min read

Published: Feb 13, 2024

Table of contents

    Steps to Critically Evaluate Research Articles
  1. PART II
  2. The Importance Of Research In Behavioral Sciences
    The Relationship Between Applied Research And Basic Research
  3. Ethical Issues Identified In Articles
  4. How were the issues addressed or neglected?
  5. PART III:
  6. List Appropriate Sources
  7. Conclusion
  8. Reference

Purpose of Each of The Sections in a Typic Research Article

'Why Violent Video Games Shouldn't Be Banned'?

All research article contain content that is in chronological order that leads from a hypothesis to a conclusion. The chronological order starts with a meaningful hypothesis to the actual content of the research. Each of the sections in a research article provide basic information of the moment of carrying out the experiment helping prove or disprove if the hypothesis is valid or not. The final result of the experiment is what brings the conclusion together with all the other elements of the research article. A typical research contains an abstract, introduction, methodology, results, discussion, and finally references. The purpose of the abstracts gives us an insight of the whole article itself and what it is about. The introduction provides a problem and with a way of how to solve this dilemma. The methodology delivers steps which include subsections on how the experiment was created. The methodology also gives articles and materials that were used in the experiment section. The results demonstrate the totality of the experiment. According to Cozby, P., & Bates, S. (2015),

“First, there is a description in narrative form—for example, “The location of items was most likely to be forgotten when the location was both highly memorable and an unusual place for the item to be stored.” Second, the results are described in statistical language. Third, the material is often depicted in tables and graphs.”

Finally, the discussions and references offer a point of conversation over all the other research that is demonstrated in the experiment. The discussion may review over the opportunity over what happened in this particular experiment that maybe the same or different from another experiment with the same questions.

Steps to Critically Evaluate Research Articles

The steps to critically evaluating research articles begins with the certainty that they are peer reviewed article. The implication of having a peer reviewed article demonstrates to the peers in the scientific field that the research has been proven to be as a valid experiment with the appropriate design to the research question being applied to. The validation of a peer reviewed article is importance as it can be presented to the public as resource and service to the community. The next step to critically evaluating a research article is the use of the scientific method in the article. If the scientific method was used correctly, it has more validity and substance to the final article and when it is being published to the public.


The Importance Of Research In Behavioral Sciences

Science has always been involved in research. Research allows hypothesis to become a theory. The theory becomes a tool that can be used to work on a particular circumstance. As the particular circumstances in the research are dissected, the science behind research continues to progress. This progress brings us to modern day research in behavioral sciences. The significance of research in behavioral sciences helps define circumstances that provoke behaviors, how these behaviors are addressed, and how research can predict behaviors in the future. According to the National Research Council (US) Committee for Monitoring the Nation's Changing Needs for Biomedical, Behavioral, and Clinical Personnel (2005),

“Mental health, for example, is an important concern at the National Institutes of Health (NIH; particularly the National Institute of Mental Health, NIMH) as well as in the government and private sector generally. Yet mental health is only one part of a much larger picture because many of the most important health problems are determined and strongly affected by behavioral, social, and economic factors. At the level of the behavior of the individual, the behavioral and social sciences produce knowledge about health issues such as drug and alcohol abuse, obesity, violent behavior, smoking, maintenance of drug treatment regimens, stress management, ability to cope with illness, and health decision making.”

As human development in the 21st century continues to evolve and broaden, new advancements in science and technology will have capacity to observe human behaviors. Using the scientific method, research will be able to inform professionals and the general public of new accounts in the field that can provide support and prevention worldwide.

The Relationship Between Applied Research And Basic Research

Research is not a simple step an individual begins. The research has to be divided into several distinctions. The distinctions are in applied and basic research. Applied research is focused on solutions to everyday problems, while basic research focuses on behaviors. The relationship between both research methods allow each other to feed information about behaviors and results. According to Cozby and Bates (2015), “Much applied research is guided by theories and findings of basic research investigations.”

We can look at the following example of how each research article contributes to the body of knowledge. In the first article, “Is the Families First Home Visiting Program Effective in Reducing Child Maltreatment and Improving Child Development”, we look at home visiting programs. The applied research article goes into depth analysis on what may affect the results of finding out whether or not the home visiting project works, the prevention of maltreatment and positive growth in children.

The information provided in the applied research article can be referred also to the second basic research article, “Mother’s Belief, Attitudes, and Decision Making Related to Infant Feeding Choices.” We can contribute the information about home visiting programs to basic information about mothers who breastfeed. This information is useful for someone and families who are in a home visiting program and maybe critically thinking about how breastfeeding can impact the growth on their child. Both articles regarding home visiting and breastfeeding may appear to be of different topics, but instead they play a correlating relationship with each other regarding progressive information on child development and family relationships within child rearing.

Ethical Issues Identified In Articles

How were the issues addressed or neglected?

Ethical issues are a common theme in research as the goal is to perform research at the best aptitude and ethics as required. In the first article, “Is the families first home visiting program effective in reducing child maltreatment and improving child development?”, we do encounter issues such as proper documentation and follow up due to the size of the families being observed. In the second article, “Reasons for Mother–Infant Bed-Sharing: A Systematic Narrative Synthesis of the Literature and Implications for Future Research”, we do find the issue of certain criteria not being included in the research, which include not focusing on breathing disorders or multi-gestational infants, or epilepsy. In the third article, “Mother's Beliefs, Attitudes, and Decision Making Related to Infant Feeding Choices.”, we see that there are no ethical issues, but instead researchers discussed the significance of getting the right information for breastfeeding mothers. According to Radzyminski & Callister (2016), “Further investigation is required to determine whether the mother was searching for validation of her decision from anyone or that her pediatrician carried more weight in the decision-making process.” In the final article, “Home Reading Environment and Brain Activation in Preschool Children Listening To Stories.”, we did see a change in the experiment which can cause the ethical issue of research and publication. According to Hutton, Horowitz-Kraus, Mendelsohn, (2015), “The exclusion of four low-SES families was a consequence of unreliable contact information (ie, phone out of service), shifting our demographic profile toward higher SES, although 37% of our sample was low-income.” This was addressed by the authors making sure they had all accurate information addressed and if there were any changes to the experiment.


Identify Three Possible Research Topics

Research topics are important for graduate students to explore as it allows the student to set the foundation to further explore topics into their careers. Researching topics of interest also allows the student to build complex critical thinking skills towards new knowledge. The new knowledge supports the student’s ability to distinguish invalid information and supportive quality data driven research and facts. According to Cozby and Bates (2015),

“In addition, as you become familiar with the research literature on a topic, you may see inconsistencies in research results that need to be investigated, or you may want to study alternative explanations for the results. Also, what you know about one research area often can be successfully applied to another research area.”

Three possible research topics that have been considered to explore further are mental health during pregnancy, child abuse and long-term effects on mental health, and workplace environments and mental health.

List Appropriate Sources

Using appropriate sources that include databases are significant when it comes to exploring the topics listed above. There is a variety of information available both online that include the research library at the University of Phoenix. It is important to reduce the information into compartments that offer the best and latest research for the topics being considered. Although one may have previous knowledge from personal experience, it is important for the information be data driven when looking for research exploring the topics. According to Cozby and Bates (2015),

“Even if the researcher formulates the basic idea, a review of past studies will help the researcher clarify the idea and design of the study. Thus, it is important to know how to search the literature on a topic and how to read research reports in professional journals.”

In the particular topics that are of current interest, we will be using the following databases: PsychoInfo, ProQuest Psychology, PsychARTICLES/PsycBOOKS, and PsycEXTRA/PsycINFO. These databases are found at the library of the University of Phoenix. Using these tools, there will be quality data to observe and apply to the topics, have credible resources to back up the data that is being provided, and have a broader perspective of the topics.


In summary, this discussion has highlighted the structure and purpose of various sections in a typical research article, emphasizing the chronological order from hypothesis to conclusion. Each section, including abstract, introduction, methodology, results, discussion, and references, plays a crucial role in presenting a comprehensive research study. The steps to critically evaluate research articles were also outlined, underscoring the importance of peer review and adherence to the scientific method.

Moving forward, the significance of research in behavioral sciences was explored, acknowledging its role in shaping theories, addressing behavioral issues, and predicting future behaviors. The relationship between applied and basic research was discussed, illustrating how both contribute to the body of knowledge and support each other in understanding behaviors.

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Furthermore, ethical issues identified in specific articles were addressed, emphasizing the importance of proper documentation, adherence to research criteria, and transparency in reporting results. While some articles demonstrated ethical diligence, others faced challenges that needed careful consideration.


  1. Chartier, M. J., Brownell, M. D., Isaac, M. R., Chateau, D., Nickel, N. C., Katz, A., … Taylor, C.
  2. (2017). Is the Families First Home Visiting Program Effective in Reducing Child Maltreatment and Improving Child Development? Child Maltreatment, 22(2), 121–131.
  3. Cozby, P., & Bates, S. (2015). Methods In Behavioral Research (12th ed.). New York, NY:
  4. McGraw-Hill Education.
  5. Hutton, J. S., Horowitz-Kraus, T., Mendelsohn, A. L., DeWitt, T., Holland, S. K., & C-Mind
  6. Authorship Consortium. (2015). Home reading environment and brain activation in preschool children listening to stories. Pediatrics, 136(3), 466-478.
  7. National Research Council (US) Committee for Monitoring the Nation's Changing Needs for
  8. Biomedical, Behavioral, and Clinical Personnel. Advancing the Nation's Health Needs: NIH Research Training Programs. Washington (DC): National Academies Press (US); 2005. 3, Behavioral and Social Sciences Research. Available from:
  9. Radzyminski, S., & Callister, L. C. (2016). Mother's Beliefs, Attitudes, and Decision Making
  10. Related to Infant Feeding Choices. The Journal of perinatal education, 25(1), 18–28.
  11. doi:10.1891/1058-1243.25.1.18
  12. Ward, T. C. S. (2015). Reasons for mother–infant bed-sharing: A systematic narrative synthesis of the literature and implications for future research. Maternal and child health journal, 19(3), 675-690.
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Exploring Behavioral Sciences, and Ethical Considerations in Research. (2024, February 13). GradesFixer. Retrieved June 17, 2024, from
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