This essay has been submitted by a student. This is not an example of the work written by professional essay writers.

Health Effects, Mechanism of Action and Active Components of Pistacia Species

downloadDownload printPrint

The number of bioactive components extracted from Pistacia species is so abundant including terpenoids, sterols and phenolic agents. These plants have many biological activities including anti-microbial, antioxidant, cytotoxic and phytotoxicity effects due to its chemical constituents. The antimicrobial activities of Pistacia species have been recognized in various studies. The extract oil of Pistacia Vera had some antifungal effects stronger than nystatin. A new study has discovered the components of Pistacia Terebinthus by GC, GC-MS responsible for anti-fungal activity. The most dermatophytes showed high sensitivity against α-pinene, camphene, β-pinene, terpinolene and β-phellandrene exist in the leaves of Pistacia terebinthus. A Turkish study described the potent antibacterial efficacy of oil extract of Pistacia Vera against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus. Obviously this has an essential role in prevention of diarrhea and other gastrointestinal disorders in natural medicine. Moreover, the extract of Pistacia Integerrima has relaxant and spasmolytic activities as well as anti-asthmatic effects. The mechanism of action looks to be by blocking the muscarinic receptors of gut. The antispasmodic acton of Pistacia Integerrima has benefit the asthmatic patients as well and many studies will be designed in the future to prove it.


As mentioned the variety of compounds in Pistacia species has given a unique characteristic to resolve many different disorders including cancer cells. In fact they act as chemoprotective anticancer naturotherapy to resolve the side effects of chemotherapy such as nausea, vomiting and hair loss. A study shows that Pistacia Integerrima crude extract inhibited breast cancer MCF-7 cell line by 97% dose-dependently. Instead of using anti-emetic medications with some neurological side effects such as metoclopramide, the antiemetic effect of the aqueous extract of leaves and nuts of Pistacia Vera in young chickens was studied. Emesis was induced by copper sulfate (60 mg/kg, orally) and ipecac (600 mg/kg, orally). The aqueous extract was injected intraperitoneally. The LD50 values of aqueous extract of leaves and nuts were 666.5 mg/kg and 565.7 mg/kg, respectively. The maximum nonfatal doses of the aqueous extracts were 100 mg/kg and 150 mg/kg, respectively. The antiemetic activity was unraveled to be due to central and/or peripheral receptors. In the recent years there have been many studies on the anticancer potential of extracts derived from mastic resin. The inhibition of cancer cell growth of prostate cancer, hepatic cancer, glioblastoma cells, lung cancer and even leukemia has been reported by mastic resin of Pistacia Lentiscus.

Analgesic and antipyretic effects

Pain and fever are manifestations of inflammation. Extract of P. integerrima galls was evaluated in mice for their analgesic effects. At a dose of 200 mg/kg, it showed significant analgesic response. At 50–200 mg/kg, it alleviated acute and chronic inflammation. The crude methanolic extract of P. integerrima bark was evaluated for antipyretic activity in mice model. At a dose of 100 mg/kg, the extract exhibited significant antipyretic effect .P. integerima bark extract-derived pistagremic acid possesses strong peripheral and central antinociceptive activity. In rat model, the terpene ameliorated carrageenan-induced edema. By docking studies, the antipyretic effect was explained to be by manipulation of COX-2 enzyme.

Hypoglycemic effect

Diabetes, a metabolic disease with pleiotropic health consequences is fast emerging as an epidemic. Prevention and treatment strategies largely focus on postprandial glycaemia reduction. A randomized study on type 2diabetic patients revealed that consumption of 25 g pistachio nuts twice/day for 12 weeks can decrease glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and fasting blood glucose level. The intervention outcome suggests the glycemic control potential of the nuts.

Hypotensive, anti-atheroscletic and cardioproetective

Hypertension can lead to a gamut of cardiomyopathies such as asphyxia, atherosclerosis, atrial fibrillation, myocardial ischemic injury, stroke, cardiac arrest etc. Lowering of dyslipidemia and restoring blood pressure to normalcy can improve heart health. Nuts consumption has been validated beneficial in this regard. The methanolic extract of P. vera nuts decreased the aortic surface lesions rabbit model of atherosclerosis. In as randomized study, pistachios nuts consumption for 4 weeks decreased the serum oxidized-LDL concentration through cholesterol-lowering and may provide an added benefit as a result of the antioxidants the pistachios contain. A moderate-fat diet containing P. vera nuts moderately improves some cardiovascular risk factors in diabetic adults A systematic review of randomized controlled trials, nuts intake, including that of P. vera has healthy effects on blood pressure. P. lentiscus var. chia resin was evaluated in human subjects for possible cardiac benefits. Ingestion of the resin powder at 5 g/daily dose for 18 months led to improvement in serum parameters as reflected in lower total cholesterol, LDL and apolipoprotein B levels.

Digestive P. lentiscus resin was evaluated for its digestive properties. Functional dyspepsia patients were administered with the gum. The ingestion of 350 mg thrice/day for 3 weeks ameliorated the symptoms of the bowel discomfort such as stomach pain and heartburn, better than placebo.


Gastric disorder, ulcer etc. are often due to bacterial activity. Helicobacter pylori as a driver of gut inflammatory Crohn’s disease is well-validated.P. lentiscus at an oral dose of 500 mg/kg ameliorated gastric and duodenal ulcers in rats. P. atlantica fruit oil extract improved ulcerative colitis in rat models. Microbiome, the microbes distributed on various niches of human body has been proven critical for immune status and neaural homeostasis.Optimization of the microbiome, by dietary intervention has been consistently suggested .Increasing the consumption of nuts, including that of pistachio appeared beneficial in improving gut microbiota composition.It promoted the abundance of butyrate-producing bacteria over lactic acid bacteria .The gum-derived essential oil of P. lentiscus var. Chia was investigated against a range of foodborne pathogenic and food spoilage microbes. The oil dominated by a-pinene and b-myrcene were most effective against Clostridium perfringens, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Zygosaccharomyces bailii. Gram positive microbes were more susceptible compared to Gram negative microbes .Another study reports that efficacy of the P. lentiscus essential oil in pathogenic inhibition is due to the synergistic effect of the components in it, highlighting the role of trace components like verbenone, alpha-terpineol, and linalool . The findings raised the possibility of their addition in food processing.


It is well know how chemical pesticides are spreading catastrophe by polluting air, water, soil and breaking links of food chain, eventually predisposing humans to a range of diseases .In this scenario, the discovery of natural herbicides is the need of the hour. In this context, pistacia genus has prospects as a weedicide. The methanolic extract and it ethyl acetate fractions P. integerrima bark have shown herbicidal activity, though sufficient literature support is yet to be found. However, the inhibitory effect on the weeds is likely to beby the allelopathic action, as exerted by some other plants as Lantana, Brazilian pepper tree (Schinus terebinthifolius) etc. This aspect ought to be researched further.

Future directions

As inferred from above mentioned biological effects, the genus Pisatcia is valuable. However, like everything else in biology, the benefits are not straight-forward. Several conflicting results have emerged as well. On toxicity profiling, no evidence of acute toxicity has been noticed on oral administration of pistacia extracts. . However, dosage is the decisive factor in this regard. High dose of P. integerrima i.e. at 1500 mg/kg exhibited toxicity and caused 66.6% deaths in mice. IgE-mediated allergic reactions to pistachio nuts are well known. The causative allergens include Pis v1 (2S albumin) and Pis v2 (11S globulin), respectively .Also, these nuts can cause allergenic cross-reactivity with other nuts in atopic individuals .P. lentiscus fruits fatty oil is an irritant, causing contact dermatitis. .Brazil pepper (Schinus terebinthifolius) fruit (pink peppercorns) are inedible, but sometimes adulterated in spices, which hs been documented to trigger anaphylaxis in some individuals .California pepper (Schinus molle) as well as Brazil pepper (Schinus terebinthifolius) emanate the skin irritant alkenyl phenol urushiol .Though this aeroallergen has been causal of numerous cases of dermatitis, urticaria and asthma, it has not been studied sufficiently. Hence, contact with Pistacia plant parts of their ingestion might have adverse health consequences as well, which needs to be evaluated. Mosquitoes like Anopheles, Culex, Aedes have been age-old adversaries of manking as the vectors for deadly viruses (such as Flavivirus), protozoa, and parasites. Pesticides are effective in their management, but the chemical has detrimental effect on human health. In this regard, natural larvicidal agents would be a great, sustainable solution. In this regard, some related Anacardiaceae members such as Brazil pepper (Schinus terebinthifolius) have proven effective. The leaf extract of this plant damaged A. aegypti fourth instar larval midgut epithelium, when incubated for 8 days. The bioactive compounds were attributed to be the polymeric proanthocyanidins, hydrolysable tannins, aglycone flavonoids, cinnamic acid derivatives, steroids, lectin etc .California pepper (Schinus molle) leaf essential oil could in vitro control cat ectoparasites (Ctenocephalides felis felis). At 50mg dose, the efficacy was 100% against the adult flies, which was attributed to was lupenone. In this regard, Pistacia genus might be useful as larvicidal agents as well. The dioecious nature of this plant affects fertilization and plant dispersal. So, Monoecious generation seems to be a viable option. Like other wild plants, genetic erosion is threat to Pistacia genus as well. So, its germplasm conservation ought to be a priority. In conventional conservation, germplasms are preserved on farms (in situ), in seed and field genebanks (ex situ), in the wild, which make them susceptible to weather conditions or infections. In this regard, tissue culture techniques such as organogenesis, somatic embryogenesis and micrografting are being adopted. Cryopreservation, the dehydration and one-step freezing (vitrification) have been developed for seeds from several Pistacia species, P. vera, P. terebinthus and P. lentiscus.

Remember! This is just a sample.

You can get your custom paper by one of our expert writers.

Get custom essay

121 writers online


Remember: This is just a sample from a fellow student.

Your time is important. Let us write you an essay from scratch

experts 450+ experts on 30 subjects ready to help you just now

delivery Starting from 3 hours delivery

Find Free Essays

We provide you with original essay samples, perfect formatting and styling

Cite this Essay

To export a reference to this article please select a referencing style below:

Health Effects, Mechanism of Action and Active Components of Pistacia Species. (2019, April 10). GradesFixer. Retrieved March 21, 2023, from
“Health Effects, Mechanism of Action and Active Components of Pistacia Species.” GradesFixer, 10 Apr. 2019,
Health Effects, Mechanism of Action and Active Components of Pistacia Species. [online]. Available at: <> [Accessed 21 Mar. 2023].
Health Effects, Mechanism of Action and Active Components of Pistacia Species [Internet]. GradesFixer. 2019 Apr 10 [cited 2023 Mar 21]. Available from:
copy to clipboard

Where do you want us to send this sample?

    By clicking “Continue”, you agree to our terms of service and privacy policy.


    Be careful. This essay is not unique

    This essay was donated by a student and is likely to have been used and submitted before

    Download this Sample

    Free samples may contain mistakes and not unique parts


    Sorry, we could not paraphrase this essay. Our professional writers can rewrite it and get you a unique paper.



    Please check your inbox.

    We can write you a custom essay that will follow your exact instructions and meet the deadlines. Let's fix your grades together!


    Hi there!

    Are you interested in getting a customized paper?

    Check it out!
    Don't use plagiarized sources. Get your custom essay. Get custom paper

    We can help you get a better grade and deliver your task on time!

    • Instructions Followed To The Letter
    • Deadlines Met At Every Stage
    • Unique And Plagiarism Free
    Order your paper now