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Introduction to Functional Nutrition

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Nutrition is the practices where living things takes in and make use of the diet. In a person, nutrition is generally attained by putting foods into our mouths, chewing and swallowing. Functional Nutrition is nutrition-based attention that is concentrated on constructing health by reestablishing appropriate biological working of the body. It is said to better address the healthcare needs of the 21st century by shifting the traditional disease-centered focus of the medical practice to a more “patient-centered approach, addressing the whole person, not just an isolated set of symptoms, listening to patients’ histories and looking at the interactions among genetic, environmental, and lifestyle factors that can influence long-term health and complex, chronic disease” (Dr. Jeffrey Bland)

For instance, a person may show various symptoms that indicate that the body is not functioning well. Apart from suppressing the indications using medicine, the specialist reads the signs and will be able to know the part of the body that need backing to restore the health back. Information like a person’s diet, lifestyle, stress, signs off illnesses, ailment history, treatments and prescriptions, contact with poisonous substances, etc., are combined in an overall plan which functions as a generalstep-by-step organization which guides specialists on the nutrition required by the body of the sick person to redeem their health and inhibit ailments. This essays is aimed to show functional foods presently defined, how safe the products are, what is making functional nutrition to grow, and finally, it’s the future. There are two categories of functional foods, conventional foods with bioactive components and fortified or enhanced foods.

The first 50 years in the 20th century was a busy time for scientist as their focus was so much into identifying essential elements and how they prevented nutritional deficiency ailments which later in 1970 it shifted from under nutrition to over nutrition forcing education to the public stressing on the importance of consuming diets low in saturated fats and should be high in fruits, vegetables, legumes and whole grains to bring down chronic ailments that had rose. These included, cancer, stroke, diabetes, heart disease and osteoporosis.Identification of physiologically active mechanisms present in foods from both vegetation and animals theoretically could bring down possibility for a variety of long-lasting illnesses. In the process, a health-cognizant people came up, there was a massive change in the food control and regulation, advancement in technology and finally a market for health promoting product rose up.

This merged to form the “Functional Foods”This essay is aimed to give the modern definition and explanation of functional foods, the degree of safety when it comes to the product, the future of functional food, what keeps it going.Functional foods of animal originThe most thoroughly examined group of biologically-active mechanisms resulting from animal produces are the fatty acids(n-3), largely concentrated in blubbery fish like herring, salmon, tuna, mackerel, sardines and tuna. Fatty acids are categorized into two principal categories docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5).

Docosahexaenoic acid is indispensable constituent for the proper functioning of the phospholipids of cellular membranes, particularly of the brain and retina of the eye for adults and infants. Scientific studies have been steered exploring the biological effects of (n-3) fatty acids in such enduring disorders like rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, cancer, Crohn’s disease, cardiovascular disease, and with the best-documented health advantage nothingness their role in heart health. A recent meta-analysis of 11 randomized intellectual dysfunction into hearings suggests that intake of (n-3) fatty acids reduces overall mortality, mortality due to myocardial infarction and sudden death in patients with CHDThe 2000 American Heart Association Dietary Guidelines recommend two platefuls of fatty fish per week for a healthy heart. The competent assertion states; Eating omega-3 fatty acids might lower the danger of coronary heart disease. Evaluation was done by the FDA and the proofs determined that the scientific evidences supporting the statement was not conclusive hence a practical statement was approved for the reason that assured safety apprehensions concerning the intake of high levels of fatty acids(n-3) like, amplified bleeding, the formation of biologically active oxidation products from the oxidation of (n-3) fatty acids, increased risk for hemorrhagic stroke, augmented levels of LDL cholesterol and finally reduced glycemic control for people living with diabetes.

The FDA resolved that use of (n-3) fatty acid supplements should not 2 g/d.Another group of biologically active animal-derived components defined as “viable microorganisms are beneficial to human health. Metchnikoff was the first to propose that lactic acid bacteria added to the permanency of Bulgarian laborers. A contemporary Scientific Status from the Institute of Food Technologists summarized the scientific support for the therapeutic or defensive use of these functional ingredients for various health concerns including cancer, intestinal tract function, immune function, allergy, stomach health, urogenital health, cholesterol lowering and hypertension. They operate by encouraging the development of one or a limited amount of constructive bacteria in the large intestine, consequently improving the host health. They consist of a short-chain carbohydrates like inulin and fructooligosaccharide which get into the large intestine and work in place of substrates for the endogenous colonic bacteria.Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is another non-plant ingredient that has been the focus of increased research efforts in the recent years. This element was initially identified as a strong antimutagenic agent in fried ground beef by Pariza and co-workers, CLA is present in almost all foods, but occurs in bigger ratios in milk produces andin ruminant animals.

The CLA may inhibit mammary carcinogenesis in animals and sometimes it is evident that CLA decreases body fat and increase muscle mass both in rodents and in humans. CLA may increase bone concreteness in animal models.Functional foods of plant originPlentiful plant nutriments or biologically active constituents derived from plants have undergone investigation concerning their role preventing illnesses and health. Nevertheless, only a small number have been approved by FDASome plant-based nutriments or food ingredients may not have approved health claims, but they have developing medical investigation and study awaking their potential health benefits, and thus would be defined as having abstemiously robust evidence. These include nuts, grapes, cranberries, garlic and chocolate and are discussed briefly below.Since the 1920s, Cranberries have been renowned for its efficiency in handling and fixing infections affecting the urinary tract. Properties of the cranberry may also provide other health benefits, including in the oral cavity Garlic also known as Allium sativum has been used for quite a long time fora extensive variety of curative purposes; its effects is attributed to the existence of many biological active organosulfur components like sulfides, allicin andallylic. Garlic shows up to be good in lowering blood pressure.Furthermore, Medical trials, which have in detail scrutinized the end product of almonds on blood lipids, came out that nuts meaningfully reduces cholesterol by 4–12% and LDL cholesterol by 6–15%. In recent times, walnuts constantly established fall in the aggregate and LDL cholesterol that automatically reduces the risk of contracting CHD.Dung the 70th year in the 20th century researchers made it known that inhabitants of some places in France, who were passionate drinkers of red wine, recorded very small number of heart problems and failures despite consuming more fat in their diet. Later, it was confirmed that there is existence of high concentrations of antioxidant polyphenolics in red grape skins.

For those wanting to withdraw from alcohol, contemporary medical trials has established that grape juice also apply helpful effects comparable to those of red wine as both are rich in phenolic antioxidant compounds. Drinking grape juice has proved that it decreases platelet clumping and accumulation.Chocolate is an additional food that has proved to be a source of polyphenolics and is just establishing to be examined for its possible benefits to the heart health. Chocolate comprises of flavonoids which works to reduce oxidative stress on LDL cholesterol. The effect of consuming black or green tea on cancer risk has been the focus of a couple of studies. A study made on animals constantly demonstrates that consuming green tea lowers the risk of contracting various types of cancers. Only a small number of studies have far assessed the health outcome of black tea. Even though 100 epidemiological studies have scrutinized the result of consuming tea on cancer risk, the data disagrees. A recent study involving 26,311 people from three municipalities in northern Japan never found any relationship between consuming green tea with the danger of contracting gastric cancer.

Tomatoes and its products are also under investigations concerning their role in cancer chemoprevention and they stand to be unique since they are the weightiest nutritional spring of lycopene, a non-provitamin A carotenoid which also act as a strong antioxidant (53). A complete assessment of 72 epidemiologic studies (54) established an opposite relationship between tomato consumption or plasma lycopene concentration and the possibility of cancer at a definite structural site in 57 of the 72 studies reviewed (79%); in 35 of these studies, the inverse associations were statistically.No study point to a higher danger with cumulative tomato intake or lycopene blood levels. Additionally, the risk decrease for like half of all studies revised was 40%). Prostate cancer, stomach and lungs exhibited the robust opposite associations, however data were reminiscent for cancer of the colon, rectum and pancreas, breast, cervix, breast and oral cavity.Extensive research is currently directed toward increasing our understanding of “functional foods.” Academic, government and private research institutes around the globe are devoting substantial efforts to identifying how functional foods and food ingredients might help prevent chronic disease or optimize health, thereby reducing healthcare costs and improving the quality of life for many consumers. An emerging discipline that will have a profound effect on future functional foods research and development efforts is nutrigenomics, which investigates the interaction between diet and development of diseases based on an individual’s genetic profileConclusionIn order to achieve the possible profits of functional nutriments, assistances from basic and practical scientists in higher school, the government and industries. Customers are ready and they require the products therefore, a system should be brought up to make sure that the subsequent footsteps must remain commenced now to stand-in their availability.Expanding researches to even customary nutrients, additional bioactive food components, and the intersection of genomics and molecular nutrition. Expand research on biomarkers and physiological endpoints.

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