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Medicinal uses of Pithecellobium dulce and its health benefits

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ABSTRACT

Phytochemical screening of plants has revealed the presence of diverse chemicals together consisting alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids, steroids, glycosides, saponins. Several plants extracts and phytochemicals show antioxidant free radical scavenging properties. Secondary metabolites of plants function as unconscious process against predation by several microorganisms, insects and herbivores.

Plant merchandise is a part of phytomedicines since yore. These may be derived from any elements of the plant like bark, leaves, flowers, roots, fruits, seeds. Any part of the plant could contain active compound. Information of the chemical constituents of plants is fascinating as a result of such data is going to be important for the synthesis of complicated chemical substance. Such phytochemical screening of assorted plants is reportable by several analysts. In the present work, qualitative and quantitative phytochemical analysis was dispensed within the leaf, fruit and fruit quit Pithocellobium dulce.

Pithecellobium dulce plant has many uses that has versatile role in ancient system of medication. Many studies are being conducted relating to the effectualness of whole plant or its components for treatment of various diseases and aliments. The active compound of the plant includes flavonoids, sterols, tannins, tri-terpenoids etc. The health promoting properties because of the presence of proteins, carbohydrates, steroids etc. and diseases preventing properties like antifungal, antiviral, bactericide, anti- diabetic, diastolic, diuretic, anthelmintic effects antipyretic, anti-inflammatory, hypoglycemic and sedative activities that has been investigated and verified by the research. The assorted properties of therapeutic properties of tree (P.dulce) are mentioned in this report.

SYNONYM:

Inga dulcis (Roxb.) willd, manila tamarind, Khoi babla (Bengali), Dekhani babul (Bengali), madras thorn, Quamochil, Bakhoi ambli (Gujrati), Huamuche (Japan) etc.

BIOLOGICAL SOURCE:

It is obtained by the ripe fruits, leaves and pod of Pithocellobium dulce which is belonging to family: Fabaceae.

DESCRIPTION:

  • It is small sized or medium tree having straight blanch spine.
  • Leaves are bipinnate in nature & each pinnate having a pair of leaflets; leaflets are bias; dense; long & obvate. The size of leaflets is approximately 2.5cm in length and it is sub-sessile.
  • Flowers are tiny, white in color and having small ball-shaped heads. Diameter of flower is 1cm.
  • Pods are distorted, they are 10-20cm in length, fleshy, turgid and become reddish in color when it matures.
  • Pods are edible and consists a fleshy sweetish acidic pulp.
  • It can be eaten naturally or raw or processed in beverage similar to lemonade.
  • From seeds, oil can be extracted and used for the cooking purpose or for making soaps.

CULTIVATION DETAILS:

  • The tree grows at low altitudes and medium altitudes in wet regions as well as in dry region of the tropics.
  • This tree grows in a region where the average temperature is between 18-27.9oC.
  • It requires drained soil in a sunny position and it can easily grow plants.
  • It can also grow in heavy clay soil.
  • This tree can also grow in poor soils.
  • It begins flowering when the tree is 1-2 meter tall.
  • In 40 years, the tree can reach a height of 12-15metres.
  • The tree may reach a height of 10 meters in 5-6 years if the soils condition is favorable.
  • The tree copse vigorously and produce root suckers upon injury to the roots.
  • Once it plants in the field then after it does not require any kind of treatment except the occasional trimming.
  • This species form interaction with certain soil bacteria, these bacteria form nodules on the roots and fix atmospheric nitrogen.
  • This tree uses some nitrogen for growing but some nitrogen utilized by the other plant which are nearby this tree.
  • The tree can tolerate a pH as high as 8.3.

PHYTOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF PLANT PARTS:

Phytochemical screening of plants has revealed the presence of diverse chemicals together with alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids, steroids, glycosides, saponins. Several plants extracts and phytochemicals show inhibitor atom scavenging properties. Secondary metabolites of plants function unconscious process against predation by several microorganisms, insects and herbivores.

Plant merchandise is a part of phytomedicines since yore. These may be derived from any elements of the plant like bark, leaves, flowers, roots, fruits, seeds. Any a part of the plant could contain active compound. Information of the chemical constituents of plants is fascinating as a result of such data is going to be important for the synthesis of complicated chemical substance. Such phytochemical screening of assorted plants is reportable by several analysts. Within the gift work, qualitative and quantitative phytochemical analysis was dispensed within the leaf, fruit and fruit quit Pithocellobium dulce.

Ash value of plant parts:

The total ash is the residue remaining after incineration. The acid insoluble ash is the part of the total ash which is insoluble in diluted Hydrochloric acid. Ash values are helpful in determining the quality and purity of the crude drug in powder form.

% Total ash = Weight of total ash Г— 100

Weight of crude drug

% Acid insoluble ash value= Weight of acid insoluble ash Г— 100

Weight of crude drug

Plant parts Ash value

  • Fruit (100gm) 0.6gm
  • Whole fruit with husk and seeds (100gm) 0.2gm
  • Seeds (100gm) 2.6gm
  • Foliage (100gm) 15.34gm

THERAPEUTIC PROPERTIES OF PITHECELLOBIUM DULCE

Anti-inflammatory activities

Anti-inflammatory refers to the property of a substance or treatment that reduces inflammation or swelling. The ethanolic extract of tree showed the presence of secondary metabolites resembling alkaloids, flavonoids, glycosides, phenols, steroids, tannins, terpenoids and saponins had showed increase in response proportion of inhibition of macromolecule denaturation and HRBC membrane stabilization when put next to the quality drug Aspirin of regarding 62.80 and 59.25% respectively. Ethanolic and binary compound leaf extracts of P. dulce were studied for its medicament activity victimization carrageenan induced paw puffiness in rats. Each extracts showed important medicament activity by lowering paw volume at the tested dose level. The binary compound extract showed a lot of activity than the alcohol extract that was cherish non-steroidal anti-inflammatory, a typical anti- inflammatory drug.

Antibacterial-activities

Ethyl acetate of Camachile fruit peel was found to be effective against S. epidermis, E. coli, K. pneumonia, S. aureus, E. faecalis, P. aeruginosa and P. putida, whereas the methanolic extract was active against K. pneumonia, S. aureus and P. putisda. The binary compound extract was found to be effective against K. respiratory disease and S. aureus solely, whereas rock oil ether extract was active solely against P. Putida. The results conjointly indicated that the peel extracts, significantly the methanolic, ester and binary compound extracts, exhibit the ability to quench DPPH radical, suggesting that the extracts are smart antioxidants with radical. The P. dulce pod pulp extract disclosed that the effective repressing activity against gram-positive microorganism, Bacillus and Gram negative microorganism, entero-bacteria respiratory disease. B. subtilis showed a bigger diameter of clearance than that of alternative Gram positive microorganism. Similarly, extract showed a most zone of clearance within the Gram negative microorganism, K. pneumonia than that of alternative Gram negative microorganism.

Antioxidant- activities

Oxidative stress has been known because the root explanation for the event and progression of many diseases. So plants containing secondary metabolites adore phenoplast compounds are reported to possess sturdy inhibitor activity of P. dulce leaf extract ready in numerous solvents (acetone, methanol, and water) was evaluated for its inhibitor activity by analysis of phenoplast content, FRAP, DPPH, and gas radical scavenging activity assays. The results showed that the presence of phenoic content (alkaloids, terpenoids, phlobatannins, coumarins, tannins, and flavonoids) within the extract however higher content was found in methonic extract. IC50 price for FRAP, DPPH, gas radical scavenging assay for dissolving agent (72.17, 13.70, 50.7), alcohol (49.77, 74.89,) and water extract (91.5, 67.41, 81.80) were reported authenticating the inhibitor activities and antifungal activity. Alcohol and seventieth dissolving agent extracts of wood bark and leaves of P. dulce were evaluated for inhibitor activity and results revealed that the wood bark and leaves of the plant are the many supply of total inhibitor activity with smart content of total phenoplast and flavonoid content. It’s conjointly found to be an honest iron. so all over that the plant may well be useful in preventing the progress of various oxidative stresses.14

Anti-diabetic-activities

In this study, alloxan treated rat, there was important increase in glucose, sterol and glyceride levels. Oral treatment with two hundred mg/kg.b.wt and four hundred mg/kg.b.wt of hydro alcoholic extract of bark of huamachil considerably reduced the glucose, sterol and glyceride in comparison to the quality glibenclamide. Thus the anti-diabetic activity is also because of this presence of phyto constituents like sterols, alkaloids, glycosides, saponins, tannins, carbohydrates, proteins, synthetic resin compounds and flavonoids in alcoholic extract of bark of P. dulce. Oral administration of P. dulce fruit extract (300 mg/kg b.w. /day) to diabetic rats for thirty days considerably reduced the degree of glucose, glycosylated Hb, carbamide and creatinine. The altered levels of humor aminotransferases and alcalescent enzyme were normalized upon treatment with the fruit extract it conjointly determined that the decrease within the levels of protein, plasma endocrine and Hb within the diabetic rats were elevated to close traditional. The amount of polyose content was improved upon treatment with the extract. Thus the results of the study showed that the fruit extract is nontoxic and possess anti-diabetic nature.

Antimicrobial activities

The silver nano particles ready biologically from the plant huamachil developed sensitivity against the microorganism strains E. coli, S. aureus, P. aeuruginosa and C. albicans showed the very best sensitivity among the various concentrations used antimicrobial activity of leaf of P. dulce against twenty infective microorganisms. Leaf extracts of P. dulce were ready in H2O and organic solvents. Agar well diffusion technique was accustomed assess the antimicrobial activity of leaf extracts against 5 Gram- positive (Bacillus subtilis, E. faecalis, M. luteus, S. aureus and S. epidermidis), seven gram-negative (Aeromonas hydrophila, A. faecalis, E. aerogenes, E. coli, K. pneumoniae, P. aeruginosa and S. typhimurium) bacterium and eight fungi (A. flavus, A. niger, A. oryzae, A. terreus, A. alternata, Alternaria brasicola, A. solani and A. vitis). The extracts showed variable inhibition zone (ranging between seven to twenty seven mm) against most of the tested microbes. Solvent extracts were found to be simpler than the liquid extract. The foremost inclined being was E. faecalis exhibiting a zone of inhibition of 27 millimeter. Rock bottom MIC values were obtained against E. faecalis, indicating the condition of the strain for all the extracts. The results of the study indicated that the P. dulce extracts possess bioactive compounds having antimicrobial properties.

Anticonvulsant activities

Epilepsy is characterized by return of seizures related to loss or disturbance of consciousness, typically however not invariably with characteristic body movements (convulsion) and invariably correlative with abnormal and excessive graphical record discharge. Anti-convulsing drug activity of the crude flavonoid fraction of the leaf of P. dulce (CFFPD) victimization the body covering Pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) and outside shock treatment take a look at (MES) models in rats, the crude flavonoid fraction exhibited important reduction within the period of hind leg extension and onset of convulsion dose in each outside shock treatment take a look at and Pentylenetetrazole model. Ethanolic and liquid leaf extract of huamachil were studied for its anticonvulsant drug activity victimization outside electroshock-induced seizure (MES) in rats. Each extracts showed important anticonvulsant drug activity by lowering the period of extension part at the tested dose level. The liquid extract showed higher result resembling Dilantin metal, a regular medicine.

Cardio protecting activities

The cardio protecting result of grain alcohol and liquid extract huamachil fruit in Isuprel (ISO) iatrogenic organic chemistry and hista pathological changes mistreatment rats disclosed that the ISO-induced rats showed a big increase within the activities of marker enzymes comparable to bodily fluid salt pyruvate aminopherase (SGOT), bodily fluid salt salt aminopherase (SGPT), internal organ marker enzymes comparable to amino acid phosphokinase (CPK) and nurse dehydrogenase (LDH). Pretreated with liquid and ethanolic extract of P. dulce fruit peel, completely altered the activities of marker enzymes and therefore the organic chemistry parameters in ISO- iatrogenic rats. The liquid extracts of P. dulce fruit and flower reverses the internal organ harm iatrogenic by (ISO) Isuprel. In comparison with the quality cardioprotective agent Isoptin, the plant extracts were nearly having same effects against infarction.

Antidiarrheal activities

The ethanolic and liquid extract of leaves of huamachil for its antidiarrheal activity mistreatment cathartic iatrogenic looseness of the bowels model in wistar unusual person rats and reported that the extracts reduced the frequency and wetness of excreta in comparison to manage cluster. The liquid extract showed additional vital activity than the grain alcohol extract at the tested dose level. Evaluated the antidiarrheal result of grain alcohol extract of P. dulce mistreatment cathartic iatrogenic looseness of the bowels in rats and reported that the Loperamide, the quality antidiarrheal drug, was same in reducing the quantity of excreta by 70.94%, while P. dulce extract was found to be handiest, reducing diarrheic muck by 70.90%. The extract considerably (p<0.01) reduced the wet excreta and total range of excreta, in comparison to manage cluster and finished that the P. dulce had antidiarrheal activity in dose dependent manner.

Larvicidal and ovicidal activities

Larvicidal and ovicidal potential of the crude solvent, benzene, chloroform, ester and methyl alcohol solvent extracts from the medicative plant huamachil against disease vector dipteran, Culex quinquefasciatus studied and reported that the methyl alcohol extract of the leaves and seed of P. dulce was the foremost effective against the larvae with LC50 and LC90 values 164.12 mg/L, 214.29 mg/L, 289.34 mg/L and 410.18 mg/L being discovered when twenty four h of exposure. The effectualness of methyl alcohol was followed by that of the ester, chloroform, aromatic hydrocarbon and solvent extracts. Concerning 100 mortality was discovered at five hundred mg/L for leaf and 750 mg/L for seed methyl alcohol extracts of P. dulce. Similar results were discovered against larvae of AN. stephensi and Ae. aegypti and so finished that seed extracts of P. dulce have the potential to be used as a perfect eco-friendly approach for the management of mosquitoes.

Anti-ulcerogenic activities

Peptic ulcer illness (PUD) could be a major chronic food poisoning caused thanks to secretion of viscos acid and enzyme. huamachil exerts exerted a nucleon pump substance like activity. It absolutely was discovered that the expression of MUC6 and MUC2 genes within the viscos and small intestine tissue layer of the P.dulce pre-treated rats were considerably higher (p<0.05) as compared with the illness models. It absolutely was conjointly discovered that the expression of those gastroprotective proteins is up regulated within the P. dulce pretreated animals and therefore the result is analogous thereto of the management animals. The western blot and densiometric analysis of the expression of H+, K+- ATPase ОІ fractional monetary unit within the gastric mucosa of the control, peptic ulceration model, drug management teams and drug pretreated animal teams of peptic ulceration model shows down regulated.

Antifungal Activity

MIC against tested flora, and extract was any fractionated by solvent-solvent fractionation and MIC was tested. MIC for A. fumigatus was zero.62 mg/ml and for A. niger was one.25 mg/ml, and therefore the results were comparable effective artificial drug antibiotic drug B. Isolated, refined and known an enzyme from wild tamarind seeds by exploitation natural process techniques and bicycle-built-for-two mass spectroscopy with organism info looking resulted that P. dulce enzyme had molecular mass of fourteen.4 kDa, that is on the point of the molecular mass of chicken ingredient enzyme (14.3 kDa), with that it conjointly shares a high degree of partial

amino acid sequence similarity. Moreover, plant enzyme showed the antifungal ability against Macrophomina phaseolina with a rather high thermal stability at up to 80В°C for fifteen min (at pH=8.0).

CONCLUSION:

Pithecellobium dulce contains a strong potent in health promoting, unwellness preventing and life prolonging properties that has been described, investigated and verified by modern researchers. However, the intrinsically active compounds and therefore the chemical accountable are determined yet, and a few mechanisms of the action of P. Dulce are still unknown. Thus, bioassay-guided isolation and identification of the bioactive elements should be developed to reveal the structure-activity relationship of those active elements, but a lot of studies needed to explore the application of the plant for development of active ingredients of biological and herbal medication applications.

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