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Female genital mutilation (FGM) is also known as female genital cutting or female circumcision. Particularly, it is an action which individuals remove some part or all of the external female genitalia. As this practice is being common in the West African developing countries such as Guinea and Sierra Leone, it is being a social norm within the society as some of the individuals tend to show acceptance towards this act. In addition, children who experienced FGM would have a higher chance of a result in negative health consequences during their adulthood. This should be treated as a social issue because it abused children and some countries have established laws and regulations criminalizing FGM to control the situation.
Female genital mutilation is usually motivated by cultural and close-minded beliefs. For instance, Guinea conducts FGM towards female is because it aims to ensure marital fidelity and resists sexual acts before marriage. However, it has a chance on the outbreak of social panic when the population realizes the actual consequences towards the individual. Furthermore, female victims would face social pressure from peers or other socioeconomic class which caused a sense of crowd out from the society. It is unhealthy to the psychological development of children which they created fear towards the world since they are “unique”.
According to statistics, it indicated approximately 100 to 140 million female victims who suffered genital mutilation. In the past 15 years, most victims experienced this process when they were newborn or at the age of 15, before the adult ceremony in Africa. In fact, voices rise around the world arguing this unethical act towards the young female girl. The situation is getting improved because FGM did not get consent from other developed countries with a higher literacy rate. People shared the information about FGM which turned the position of many supporters of FGM since they understand about it violates human rights and the right to equality.
Female genital mutilations have no possible positive outcomes for children. This issue violates the United Nations Conventions Rights of Children by blocking children to be a better self and develop their potential. This captures the rights of individuals to gain equal treatments because they are despised by socioeconomic classes on this process. Without solving this social issue, the children will live under the shadow forever because society does not compensate them. Thus, it destroys the functioning of the female vaginal system. The developing countries do not have advanced medical technologies to do the surgery probably. It caused sequels such as excessive bleeding when removing the genitalia whereas may even cause injury to the body parts around the genitalia tissue. Some children may have immediate body reactions after the surgery which they would have a high fever and even causes death because their body structure is not able to handle the body change.
On a world scale, 3 million girls have a risk of undergoing female genital mutilations while more than 100 millions of female victims have already undergone. It is a horrifying fact which genital mutilations started to spread the exercise to other developing countries such as India and Southern Africa. It is a global issue due to the fact that more than 30 countries exist cases about female genital mutilations. It will be a culture which spread to other regions as this trend is going on. Although society does not accept this act, there is always some part of the society will do deviant act. It is important to apply severity, celebrity, and certainty based on the law of punishment. It is expected to see global efforts and changes towards minimizing the girls who suffer from the act. Global governments especially the African national government should create laws which strongly regulation this tradition happens with a stronger severity of punishment. It should be treated as problematic as it ruins the life of a young female child. Meanwhile, it is expected to see further improvement based on statistics. The number of female children is continually increasing but it started to raise global awareness. At this stage, technology and media can involve solving the situation to give global pressure to governments in order to force them to face this social issue and solve it completely and immediately. In this case, globalization will be an advantage on solving this issue because it helps to spread out messages and allow discussion on an international platform such as United Nations to help developing countries to solve social issues.
A research on female genital mutilations indicated that cultural beliefs, religions, and tradition are main factors which individuals pursuit this act. The research described efforts by the non-governmental organization, Association for Women’s Right in Development had given hands to girls in need within the Western African studies. It has established a female genital mutilations program which provides community leadership towards the girls to stand out their rights against this unethical action. The programs focused on the ignorant of key stakeholders in the community experience resistance to change. It believed community leadership takes important to solve the issue temporarily. But, in the long term, it would be ideal if local efforts are shown. There are no clear pieces of evidence which showed the care of West African government doing actions stopping the generation X and Y doing the genital cutting on their children or grandchildren. The efforts accomplished by globally are effective but more needs to be done to solve this desperate social issue and avoid other children suffering from this action.
Starting from Hong Kong, a democratic and a society which enjoys the freedom of speech, it is helpful if people including myself to create awareness among Asia but not North America. It is believed that changes start at the school level. In general, technology can be involved to promote new behavior within the society if education allows individuals to provide awareness on the consequences of female genital mutilations. For instance, the content about FGM should be added to courses that under the social science category like social change, sociology, and social challenge. Contents should involve teaching negative consequences and describing the social issue while expressing the fundamental needs to change. The voices of the young population will be able to convince the community thus families working on the abandonment of FGC. Study participants will neutralize the points of view of “marriageability” and start intermarrying society to eliminate the issue.
Before the involvement of government, the media could be a possible alternative to attract religious leader and modern elites to stand up for protecting or defending the rights of women. Emma Watson would be a great example as she is a modern elite who attempt to solve social issues related to women rights. She will create social cohesion with the public and lead the population who are ready to change to convey the population who are resisting to change. The society will be united and overcome the social issue as a unit.
As the changes should be started from the young generation with a little amount of knowledge towards female genital mutilations, it would be necessary for the government and non-governmental organizations make involvement into the social issue when population disagrees with the handle of female genital mutilations. If the governments around the world but not only the Hong Kong government involve, it will have a positive influence on the issue as the world is making process effectively. Governments need to work on solving the religious beliefs in the developing country to educate generation X thus Y on their close-minded set. Without a doubt, only the provincial government has the influential power to change the local customs. It is recommended the government provide alternatives for civilians to adopt to replace this traditional custom which violates fundamental human rights. Besides, the West African government can spend extra fundings on education and health care. It will minimize the negative consequences when welfare is improving. During the phase of change, there would exist possible setbacks which individuals resist to change and intentionally continue the behavior. The government should be responsible to change customs while educating the younger children who did not experience female genital mutilations yet to protect themselves by acknowledging them about the fundamental rights of humans, women rights and action in the UNCRC.
The most challenging issue will be it may cause cultural lag. The disagreement on female genital mutilations changes their beliefs on their religions. In a short period of time, it may cause social unrest because they lost their focus and their beliefs. Moreover, the uneducated groups may refuse to get the education to knowledge about female genital mutilations because they believe in what their ancestors have done to them. In addition, the macroeconomic performance of the country may also be slightly affected because the society will not be united, voices and different opinions raised which caused the society and unproductive which indirectly affect GDP.
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